Anime Research Paper

Osservando il panorama letterario contemporaneo si nota sempre di più la presenza di libri e testi che ripropongono in modo alternativo motivi e figure appartenenti all’ambito del folklore. Anche il Giappone non è immune a questa... more

Osservando il panorama letterario contemporaneo si nota sempre di più la presenza di libri e testi che ripropongono in modo alternativo motivi e figure appartenenti all’ambito del folklore. Anche il Giappone non è immune a questa tendenza, la quale dilaga in svariati campi, dai manga, agli anime, ai drama. Ma qual è il motivo, il fattore scatenante che spinge gli autori e gli scrittori ad attingere al mondo dei miti e dei racconti e a rielaborarlo e rivisitarlo in chiavi sempre nuove?
In Giappone, la tradizione folklorica è molto ricca e preponderante nella vita di ogni giorno. Infatti, è una tradizione viva, che rispecchia diversi aspetti della società e che si evolve con essa. Proprio per questo motivo, è importante capire le differenze fra i vari generi ed accettarne la naturale contaminazione fra di essi. La tradizione folklorica giapponese è composta da mukashibanashi (昔話), shinwa (神話), densetsu (伝説) e gūwa (寓話). I mukashibanashi (termine che letteralmente significa “racconti del passato”) sono racconti popolari tramandati oralmente di generazione in generazione e sono creazioni della fantasia, quindi finzione. Il termine shinwa si riferisce ai miti e
alla cosmogonia, anch’essi di tradizione orale, che spiegano le origini della vita e, di conseguenza, questa parola designa racconti che erano considerati come verità. I densetsu, invece, sono le leggende tramandate oralmente che riguardano episodi o personaggi storici o realmente esistiti e che, per questa ragione, sono legate alla comunità e al luogo dell’avvenimento. I gūwa, infine, sono le favole, cioè
quei racconti orali che contengono una morale o una satira della società in cui solitamente i protagonisti sono animali personificati. Questi sono solo alcuni dei generi e dei sottogeneri della tradizione orale, i cui confini peraltro nella pratica tendono ad essere sfumati.
Molto diffuso, dunque, nella tradizione folklorica giapponese è il filone degli iruikonintan e del motivo della tennyo, i quali si riscontrano sotto forma di shinwa, mukashibanashi e densetsu, poi recuperati e rielaborati in libri, manga e anime. Questi risultano essere un argomento molto controverso su cui gli studiosi di folklore hanno continuato a dibattere fin dai primi anni del ‘900.
Il termine iruikonintan (異類婚姻譚) è composto dalla parola irui (異類), che indica “individui appartenenti a specie differenti”, da konin (婚姻), che vuol dire “matrimonio” o “connubio”, e da tan (譚), il quale significa “storia”; dunque, complessivamente, gli iruikonintan sono storie di matrimoni fra individui appartenenti a specie diverse. Per determinare più precisamente quali sono le specie cui appartengono suddetti individui, bisogna tener presente che gli iruikonintan si suddividono in due grandi branche: gli iruinyōbō (異類女房) e gli iruimuko (異類聟). I primi raccontano storie di connubio fra un marito umano e una moglie non umana, la cui “vera forma” (正体 shōtai) può essere un serpente, una rana, un pesce, una gru, una volpe, una tennyo ecc., mentre nei secondi è la moglie a essere umana e l’uomo a non esserlo (di solito è un serpente, una scimmia, una rana, un cane, un
cavallo, un oni o un kodama). Dal momento che il folklore giapponese è così ricco di personaggi inumani (basti pensare all’enorme varietà di yōkai che hanno come luogo d’origine il Giappone) e considerando la definizione letterale del termine iruikonintan, sembrerebbe naturale, quasi logico, comprendere in questo filone anche la figura della tennyo (天女, che letteralmente significa “fanciulla del cielo”, anche comunemente tradotta come “vergine celeste”). In realtà, ogni studioso ha dato una sua particolare interpretazione di questo motivo e quasi tutti lo hanno designato come qualcosa di altro rispetto agli iruikonintan, posizione che personalmente non condivido.
Di conseguenza, in questo elaborato mi propongo di analizzare le forme più conosciute di iruikonintan e confrontarle con alcune versioni del racconto della tennyo, tracciando le origini, le somiglianze e le differenze di questi motivi e la funzione da essi svolta nel corso dei secoli. Inoltre, dal momento che tradizione orale e tradizione scritta sono state studiate isolatamente l’una dall’altra, questa tesi si propone di mettere in luce il modo in cui si sono influenzate a vicenda nel corso dei secoli fino a giungere alla contaminazione dei generi attuale.

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