Osservando il panorama letterario contemporaneo si nota sempre di più la presenza di libri e testi che ripropongono in modo alternativo motivi e figure appartenenti all’ambito del folklore. Anche il Giappone non è immune a questa... more
Osservando il panorama letterario contemporaneo si nota sempre di più la presenza di libri e testi che ripropongono in modo alternativo motivi e figure appartenenti all’ambito del folklore. Anche il Giappone non è immune a questa tendenza, la quale dilaga in svariati campi, dai manga, agli anime, ai drama. Ma qual è il motivo, il fattore scatenante che spinge gli autori e gli scrittori ad attingere al mondo dei miti e dei racconti e a rielaborarlo e rivisitarlo in chiavi sempre nuove?
In Giappone, la tradizione folklorica è molto ricca e preponderante nella vita di ogni giorno. Infatti, è una tradizione viva, che rispecchia diversi aspetti della società e che si evolve con essa. Proprio per questo motivo, è importante capire le differenze fra i vari generi ed accettarne la naturale contaminazione fra di essi. La tradizione folklorica giapponese è composta da mukashibanashi (昔話), shinwa (神話), densetsu (伝説) e gūwa (寓話). I mukashibanashi (termine che letteralmente significa “racconti del passato”) sono racconti popolari tramandati oralmente di generazione in generazione e sono creazioni della fantasia, quindi finzione. Il termine shinwa si riferisce ai miti e
alla cosmogonia, anch’essi di tradizione orale, che spiegano le origini della vita e, di conseguenza, questa parola designa racconti che erano considerati come verità. I densetsu, invece, sono le leggende tramandate oralmente che riguardano episodi o personaggi storici o realmente esistiti e che, per questa ragione, sono legate alla comunità e al luogo dell’avvenimento. I gūwa, infine, sono le favole, cioè
quei racconti orali che contengono una morale o una satira della società in cui solitamente i protagonisti sono animali personificati. Questi sono solo alcuni dei generi e dei sottogeneri della tradizione orale, i cui confini peraltro nella pratica tendono ad essere sfumati.
Molto diffuso, dunque, nella tradizione folklorica giapponese è il filone degli iruikonintan e del motivo della tennyo, i quali si riscontrano sotto forma di shinwa, mukashibanashi e densetsu, poi recuperati e rielaborati in libri, manga e anime. Questi risultano essere un argomento molto controverso su cui gli studiosi di folklore hanno continuato a dibattere fin dai primi anni del ‘900.
Il termine iruikonintan (異類婚姻譚) è composto dalla parola irui (異類), che indica “individui appartenenti a specie differenti”, da konin (婚姻), che vuol dire “matrimonio” o “connubio”, e da tan (譚), il quale significa “storia”; dunque, complessivamente, gli iruikonintan sono storie di matrimoni fra individui appartenenti a specie diverse. Per determinare più precisamente quali sono le specie cui appartengono suddetti individui, bisogna tener presente che gli iruikonintan si suddividono in due grandi branche: gli iruinyōbō (異類女房) e gli iruimuko (異類聟). I primi raccontano storie di connubio fra un marito umano e una moglie non umana, la cui “vera forma” (正体 shōtai) può essere un serpente, una rana, un pesce, una gru, una volpe, una tennyo ecc., mentre nei secondi è la moglie a essere umana e l’uomo a non esserlo (di solito è un serpente, una scimmia, una rana, un cane, un
cavallo, un oni o un kodama). Dal momento che il folklore giapponese è così ricco di personaggi inumani (basti pensare all’enorme varietà di yōkai che hanno come luogo d’origine il Giappone) e considerando la definizione letterale del termine iruikonintan, sembrerebbe naturale, quasi logico, comprendere in questo filone anche la figura della tennyo (天女, che letteralmente significa “fanciulla del cielo”, anche comunemente tradotta come “vergine celeste”). In realtà, ogni studioso ha dato una sua particolare interpretazione di questo motivo e quasi tutti lo hanno designato come qualcosa di altro rispetto agli iruikonintan, posizione che personalmente non condivido.
Di conseguenza, in questo elaborato mi propongo di analizzare le forme più conosciute di iruikonintan e confrontarle con alcune versioni del racconto della tennyo, tracciando le origini, le somiglianze e le differenze di questi motivi e la funzione da essi svolta nel corso dei secoli. Inoltre, dal momento che tradizione orale e tradizione scritta sono state studiate isolatamente l’una dall’altra, questa tesi si propone di mettere in luce il modo in cui si sono influenzate a vicenda nel corso dei secoli fino a giungere alla contaminazione dei generi attuale.
...Running Head: JAPANESE ANIMATION 1 LIBERAL ARTS JAPANESE ANIMATION 2 Probably all have ever seen or just heard about the anime. Everyone remembers the characters that differ colored hair and big round eyes. Works such as Sailor Moon, Dragonball Z, Gundam Wing, and of course Pokémon are a cult of its genre. I'm sure many have seen these cartoons, but never thought about what they are and who made them. I remember when I was a kid watching Pokémon after school and could not have imagined that the same Looney Tunes are completely different things. In my mind there was only one question: "Why their eyes so big?" Where did all these cartoons come from? To find the answer one must look no further than in Japan, the birthplace of Japanese animation, and the main source for all of this madness. Japanese animation, also known as anime (pronounced "ani-may"), is a popular form of animation in Japan, which is quickly spreading in the world. The major difference between anime and American cartoons is that unlike American cartoons, which are only watched by children, anime is popular among the Japanese adults and is watched by millions. The audience is not merely directed to children but to teens and adults as well. The same applies to Japanese comics known as manga. The origins of Japanese animation art are in the cultural traditions of this nation. Despite the nearly century-long period when the animation as an element of......
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How Anime and Manga Affect Teenagers
...HOW ANIME AND MANGA AFFECT THE LIVES OF TEENAGERS Presented by: Paula Carmela Pascua Cheska Andador Kimberly Lourdes Tina Amper Ace Estranero Sheena Ornopia Table of Contents Rationale -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page Problem --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page Significance of the Study ------------------------------------------------------- Page Related Literature and Theoretical Framework ------------------------------ Page Methodology ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Page Presentation of Data -------------------------------------------------------------- Page Analysis and Interpretation ------------------------------------------------------ Page Conclusions ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Page Recommendations ----------------------------------------------------------------- Page Rationale With us living in the modern times, new technologies appeared that helped people perform their tasks well. Truly our lifestyle has changed along with the changes in technology. People’s hobbies have changed as well, this is greatly seen in the growing population of what we could call otakus. In the Western part of the world, this term refers to the people who are fans of anime and manga. In Japan, however, this term is somewhat considered as a negative way of labeling someone. For......
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...Introduction The word Anime was just an abbreviation of the word animation. Moreover, Animation refers to computerized simulation of processes using images to form synthetic motion picture, also known as Graphics. In Japan, the word is used to refer to all animation. Outside of Japan, it's become the catch-all term for animation from Japan. For decades, anime was produced by and for Japan a local product, with a distinct look-and-feel to not just the artwork but the storytelling, the themes, and the concepts. Over the last forty years, as people recognized the uniqueness of it specially its drawings, animation and graphics, it becomes an international phenomenon, attracting millions of fans and being translated into many languages. A whole generation of viewers in the West has grown up with it and is now passing it on to their own children. Objective The findings in this study that have been based on my researches can help and also benefit people especially students. This will help them in the sense that it will enhance their knowledge about this certain topic. It will let them know how Animes created and work, and also in this study, it will let them realize how this first started before. Statement of the Problem This study aims to make students gain knowledge and determine their perceptions towards animation (anime). Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the history behind Animes before? 2. How to create animations on an......
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...People who are addicted in watching and reading Japanese anime, not so far, it will affect their lifestyle and it may also improve their mental and emotional skills. I. Introduction A. History B. Terminology 1. Word Usage 2. Synonyms II. Causes of Watching Anime A. Symptoms of Watching Anime B. Anime Replaces your Responsibilities III. Effects of Watching Anime A. Increased Social Interaction B. Potential for Behavioral Problems C. An Interest in Art IV. Benefits of Watching Anime A. Learn Japanese Language and Culture B. Relieve Stress C. Learn something from the Character D. Learn How to Draw Better E. For Entertainment V. Conclusion VI. Reference Introduction Anime (Japanese: アニメ?, [a.ni.me] /ˈænɨmeɪ/ or /ˈɑːnɨmeɪ/) are Japanese animated productions featuring hand-drawn or computer animation. Anime includes animated television series, short films and full-length feature films. The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of "animation" in Japanese. In English, the term is defined as a Japanese-disseminated animation style often characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastic themes. The intended meaning of the term sometimes varies depending on the context. While the earliest known Japanese animation dates to 1917, and many original Japanese animations were produced in the ensuing decades, the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s—notably with......
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...A Brief History of Anime Michael O'Connell Source: Otakon 1999 program book Early Days At the beginning of the 20th century, Japanese graphic artists began to feel the influence of two very powerful Western inventions: the newspaper comic strip and the motion picture. With its word balloons and linear story-line, the comic strip provided Japanese story-tellers with a structure that was readily accessible to the masses. Soon, popular cartoonists like Rakiten Kitazawa and Ippei Okamoto were producing their own serialized newspaper prints. These would eventually contribute to the development of the modern Japanese comic book or "manga" In 1914, cartoonists were among the first Japanese artists to experiment with animated motion pictures. Japan's first world-wide success was Kitayama Seitaro's short film Momotaro(1918). Although the Japanese animation industry continued to grow slowly, its one, last pre-war milestone was Chikara To Onna No Yononaka. Appearing in 1932, the short film was the first animated "talkie" in Japanese. Elswhere in the world, the animation industry was not only thriving but breaking new ground. The undisputed leaders in the field were Walt Disney and the Fleisher Brothers. People now forgot what a shock it was for Disney to even consider producing a full-length animated feature. But, when Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs appeared in 1937 to overwhelming popular acclaim, Disney demonstrated that animation could be just as expressive and viable a medium...
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...Watching Anime to the High School Students A Term Paper Presented To Ms. Inot Lourdes College In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements in English 2 By Justin L. Yu Bachelor of Science in business administration Feb. 25, 2014 Outline i. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………2 ii. Body…………………………………………………………………………………2 a. The effects of watching anime to the students b. The effects for the students who are watching anime iii. Significance of the study…………………………………………………………. iv. Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………………… c. Do Watching anime is important of not important to them d. The disadvantages of watching anime e. Finding a ways how the students prevent from getting addicted on watching anime v. Scope and limitations……………………………………………………………. vi. Discussion………………………………………………………………………… vii. Summary and conclusion………………………………………………..……… f. Summary g. Conclusion viii. Bibliography………………………………………………………………………. Introduction On our generation nowadays most of the students get addicted on watching anime or reading Mangas (a Japanese term of comic books). If a person likes anime too much, he or she will be called as an OTAKU(is a Japanese term for people with obsessive interests, commonly the anime and manga fandom.) Otakus follows their desire without thinking first. They also follows the anime series they wants. There are many factors that urge students to watch......
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...SCHOOL Merila, Ubaldo Laya, Iligan City S.Y. 2013- 2014 A Requirement in Mathematics IV: Calculus Controversy: Leibniz vs. Newton by Noronsalih Ali, Jra Submitted to Ms. Moneerah A. Bint- Usman Dedication I would like to dedicate this research to my adviser, teacher Monie. And to all of the people who inspired me, especially my parents for their support and to God for giving me enough knowledge to make this study successful. Acknowledgement Abstract This research explores more about the history of the two Mathematicians and how did they invent calculus with the same idea. This is a study about a controversy in Mathematics where Sir Isaac and Gottfried von Leibniz were involved. It tackles about who was the real father of calculus and who gets the credit of inventing it. Inside this paper, the researcher will also discuss a brief summary about Calculus, and short biography of the Mathematicians that were involved in this matter. Many people debates about this matter and we will also tackle some of it in this study. Introduction: So who really invented calculus first? Was it Sir Isaac Newton or Gottfried von Leibniz? Well let's do some investigation. There is no doubt about it that Newton and Leibniz made great mathematical breakthroughs but even before they began studying Calculus there were other people such as Archimedes and Euclid who discovered the infinite and infinitesimal. Much of Newton and Leibniz's work was based off of......
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...Technology Studies from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, studied the effects of anime fandom on IT students. He found that one great benefit that anime has on students is increased social interaction. IT students, Eng notes, have generally been victims of a stereotype that casts them as antisocial and unapproachable. When IT students become anime fans, they're immediately accepted by all of the other students who like anime, as well as a community of fans on the Internet. This applies to any student who otherwise has difficulty making friends. Potential for Behavioral Problems Some students with a propensity for behavioral problems get ideas from anime. The anime "Death Note," which features a notebook in which the protagonist can write down the name of someone he wants to die, as well as the method of that person's death, has caused a number of problems in American schools. In Oklahoma in 2009, two students wrote the names of other students they didn't like in a "death note" they made, along with how they'd like those students to die. Similar incidents occurred in Virginia, South Carolina, Washington and Alabama in 2007 and 2008. An Interest in Art Many students interested in anime pursue an interest in art. These students are often interested in designing their own anime characters and creating their own manga (Japanese-style comic books). While some art teachers may be frustrated with these students' desire to draw only in the large-eyed, cartoonish anime style,......
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The Effect of Anime
...Background of the Study Anime is a type of cartoon but rather, it is complex, mature, broader, and even the animation drawing is on a higher level than that of a mere cartoon. Anime, which originated in Japan, is drawn by a “Mangaka” (artist) into manga (comic) drafts. These drafts are then rearranged, colored and synchronized by a hundred of staff. After the sequencing, a “Seiyuu” (Voice Actor) will give life to the character. One second of movement needs twenty-five to thirty-five drafts of drawing. Since it originated in Japan, most of the Animes shows the culture and hidden beauty of Japan, its technological advancement, friendship, love and student’s life, the Japanese way. Anime is a term for a style of Japanese comic book and video cartoon animation in which the main characters have large doe-like eyes. Many Web sites are devoted to anime. Anime is the prevalent style in Japanese comic books or manga. In Japan, the comic book is a popular form of entertainment for adults as well as for younger audiences. Story lines are often very sophisticated and complex and extend into episodic series. Typical anime themes or genres include Ninja and other martial arts; the supernatural or horror story; the romance; and science fiction including robots and space ships. Foils for the main characters, including robots, monsters, or just plain bad people, often lack the doe-eyed quality. Popular nowadays, Anime had touched the heart of many viewers. Some popular Anime such as......
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...Cultural consumer and copyright: A case study of anime fan subbing Carlo Valencia BSED 1st year Abstract This paper intends to discuss copyright infringement from consumers’ perspective through looking into anime ‘fan subbing’. Anime fan subbing refers to the participatory consumption in which avid fans copy anime (Japanese animation), translate Japanese to another language, subtitle and release subtitled version on the Internet to share it with other fans, without asking for permission from the copyright holder. The case study of English fan subbing of anime shows that this activity was guided by fan subbers’ own ethics that intended to support the anime industry by self-controlling fan subbed anime. Under the advancement of digital technologies and the increased global connectivity among anime fans, however, the existing ethics have become outdated and thus global distribution of anime is further detached from the industry’s distribution businesses. This paper notes the importance of consumers’ own norms and rules in shaping behavior of copyright infringement. It raises further questions on the relationship between copyright law and consumer ethics. Introduction Amid the rise of creative economy discourse, the issue of copyright is drawing increasing attention from cultural industries, policy makers, civil societies and consumers. Simply put, ‘copyright’ can be defined as a series of exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute a work of......
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Anime and Manga
...Writing Mode: A research paper is a form of EXPOSITORY writing (informs, explains, clarifies, or defines), anchored to researched, cited information. Scoring Guidelines |6 = Exemplary |3= Developing | |5 = Strong |2 = Emerging | |4 = Proficient |1 = Beginning | Reminder: If a student receives Emerging or Developing in any category the teacher must include suggestions for improvement in the Comments section. PART I: | |Criteria |Score |Comments | |Ideas and Content |Research paper is focused and presents information gathered about | | | | |a specific topic. | | | | |Research paper includes a clear, arguable thesis statement. | | | | |Thesis statement is revisited in the conclusion. | | | | |Supporting ideas and details work to develop the thesis statement.| | | | |Analysis of the......
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Environmentalism in Manga and Anime
...Environmentalism in Manga and Anime In Western news stories, Japan and the environment usually only come up together in one form: Japan is ruining the environment. Japan is hunting endangered whales; Japan is overfishing depleted fishing stocks; Japan has walled up the last of its wild rivers; Japan is building up all its wild areas. All these accusations are, unfortunately, true to some large degree. Even in anime, all too often what we see are images that point to a continuation of the current trend: metal and concrete mega-cities, like those in the anime Dominion, Akira, Gunnm, or in Bubblegum Crisis, or any of the other hard science-fiction worlds. Not a pleasant picture --- and in fact, in those "cyberpunk"-ish stories, the world is not a pleasant place to be in, in general. But, running through other works is a thread of a different hue. Listen closely, and a different voice is heard --- the voice of dissent, the voice protesting the loss of green spaces and clean waters and open air. Where has this voice come from? I'm not quite qualified to say for sure, but I can guess. Some of it is obvious: people who are tired of seeing tranquil forests razed, or seeing their favorite beach turned into a concrete nightmare (such as in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan); people who read the news and hear of oil spills and extinctions and pollution problems. But another aspect is surely the traditional sense of Taoism that runs deep in Japanese culture. Taoism was the......
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...Running head: ANIME Teenagers today are so obsessed to Anime because it does not only entertain and communicates with them; it also reflects their own problems and struggles in life. Jimenez, Mariannel C. School of Languages, Humanities and Social Studies Mapua Institute of Technology December 04, 2015 Anime Research Paper: Teenagers today are so obsessed to Anime because it does not only entertain and communicates with them; it also reflects their own problems and struggles in life. Anime is a big part of Japanese culture, with its popularity having also spread worldwide. It has been the most popular and victorious entertainment ever since, it is translated to different languages to be spread all over the world (Wikipedia, 2007). Teenagers today are so obsessed to anime because of the wide range of genres that enables them to choose which one they would like to watch. Teenagers enjoys’ watching anime because it gives them joy and it serves as an alternative to their problems and struggles in life. What Anime is “Japanese anime are animated productions featuring hand drawn or computer animation” (Wikipedia, 2015). The word anime can slightly vary depending on where you are. If you are in Japan, anime refers to the shortened form of romaji animashon but if you are outside Japan, anime refers to the kind of animation that is from Japan which is characterized by fantasy, vibrant characters, colorful grahics, and over acting scenes. In simpler words, anime is one of......
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Anime Affects Student's Study Habit
...“A study about the effects of watching Anime to the study habit of high school students.” A. Background of the Study Anime is a type of cartoon but rather, it is complex, mature, broader, and even the animation drawing is on a higher level than that of a mere cartoon. Anime, which originated in Japan, is drawn by a “Mangaka” (artist) into manga (comic) drafts. These drafts are then rearranged, colored and synchronized by a hundred of staff. After the sequencing, a “Seiyuu” (Voice Actor) will give life to the character. One second of movement needs twenty-five to thirty-five drafts of drawing. Since it originated in Japan, most of the Animes shows the culture and hidden beauty of Japan, its technological advancement, friendship, love and student’s life, the Japanese way. Popular nowadays, Anime had touched the heart of many viewers. Some popular Anime such as DragonBall Z, Ghost Fighter, Naruto and Voltes V. This Animes had dominated the media industry in the past few years. Japan has a very unique culture. The Philippines, on the other hand, lacks that kind of culture, that is, its very own culture is made of by the mixture of cultures of other countries such as America, Spain and China. That is why many Filipinos are fascinated with such culture. Anime proposed amazing concepts and catchy storyline that is humorous yet fascinating. It also features some future ideas about what would take place in the future and what technological advancements can people......
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Study on Anime and Manga
...Introduction Anime refers to the animation style originated in Japan. It is characterized by distinctive characters and backgrounds, hand-drawn or computer-generated that visually and thematically set it apart from other forms of animation. Storylines may include a variety of fictional or historical characters, events, and settings. Anime is aimed at a broad range of audiences and consequently, a given series may have aspects of a range of genres. Anime is most frequently broadcasted on television or sold on DVDs either after their broadcast run or directly as original video animation. Console and computer games sometimes also feature segments or scenes that can be considered anime. Manga is Japanese for "comics" or "whimsical images". Manga developed from a mixture of Ukiyo-e and Western styles of drawing, and took its current form shortly after World War II. Manga, apart from covers, is usually published in black and white but it is common to find introductions to chapters to be in color, and is read from top to bottom and then right to left, similar to the layout of a Japanese plain text. Financially, manga represented in 2005 a market of ¥24 billion in Japan and one of $180 million in the United States. Manga was the fastest growing segment of books in the United States in 2005. Anime and manga share many characteristics, including: exaggerating of physical features, to which the reader presumably should pay most attention, "dramatically shaped speech bubbles, speed......
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