For other uses, see Kali (disambiguation).
"The black one" redirects here. For the 2005 drone metal album, see Black One. For the male choral group, see The Black Ones.
|Goddess of Time, Creation, Destruction and Power|
|Affiliation||Mahavidya, Devi, Tridevi, Durga, Parvati|
|Abode||Cremation grounds (but varies by interpretation)|
|Weapon||Scimitar, Sword, Trishula (Trident)|
|Festivals||Kali Puja, Navratri|
Kālī (; Sanskrit: काली), also known as Kālikā (Sanskrit: कालिका), is a Hindugoddess. Kali is one of the ten Mahavidyas, a list which combines Sakta and Buddhist goddesses.
Kali's earliest appearance is that of a destroyer of evil forces. She is the goddess of one of the four subcategories of the Kulamārga, a category of tantricSaivism. Over time, she has been worshipped by devotional movements and tantric sects variously as the Divine Mother, Mother of the Universe, Adi Shakti, or Adi Parashakti.Shakta Hindu and Tantric sects additionally worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman. She is also seen as divine protector and the one who bestows moksha, or liberation. Kali is often portrayed standing or dancing on her consort, the Hindu god Shiva, who lies calm and prostrate beneath her. Kali is worshipped by Hindus throughout India.
Kālī is the feminine form of kālam ("black, dark coloured"). Kālī also shares the meaning of "time" or "the fullness of time" with the masculine noun "kāla"—and by extension, time as "changing aspect of nature that bring things to life or death." Other names include Kālarātri ("the black night"), and Kālikā ("the black one").
The homonymous kāla, "appointed time", which depending on context can mean "death", is distinct from kāla "black", but became associated through popular etymology. The association is seen in a passage from the Mahābhārata, depicting a female figure who carries away the spirits of slain warriors and animals. She is called kālarātri (which Thomas Coburn, a historian of Sanskrit Goddess literature, translates as "night of death") and also kālī (which, as Coburn notes, can be read here either as a proper name or as a description "the black one"). Kālī is also the feminine form of Kāla, an epithet of Shiva, and thus the consort of Shiva.
Hugh Urban notes that although the word Kālī appears as early as the Atharva Veda, the first use of it as a proper name is in the Kathaka Grhya Sutra (19.7). Kali appears in the Mundaka Upanishad (section 1, chapter 2, verse 4) not explicitly as a goddess, but as the black tongue of the seven flickering tongues of Agni, the Hindu god of fire.
According to David Kinsley, Kāli is first mentioned in Hindu tradition as a distinct goddess around 600 CE, and these texts "usually place her on the periphery of Hindu society or on the battlefield." She is often regarded as the Shakti of Shiva, and is closely associated with him in various Puranas.
Her most well known appearance on the battlefield is in the sixth century Devi Mahatmyam. The deity of the first chapter of Devi Mahatmyam is Mahakali, who appears from the body of sleeping Vishnu as goddess Yoga Nidra to wake him up in order to protect Bramha and the World from two demons Madhu and Kaitabha. When Vishnu woke up he started a war against the two demons. After a long battle with lord Vishnu when the two demons were undefeated Mahakali took the form of Mahamaya to enchant the two asuras. When Madhu and Kaitabha were enchanted by Mahakali, Vishnu killed them.
In later chapters the story of two demons can be found who were destroyed by Kali. Chanda and Munda attack the goddess Durga. Durga responds with such anger that her face turns dark and Kali appears out of her forehead. Kali's appearance is black, gaunt with sunken eyes, and wearing a tiger skin and a garland of human heads. She immediately defeats the two demons. Later in the same battle, the demon Raktabija is undefeated because of his ability to reproduce himself from every drop of his blood that reaches the ground. Countless Raktabija clones appear on the battlefield. Kali eventually defeats him by sucking his blood before it can reach the ground, and eating the numerous clones. Kinsley writes that Kali represents "Durga's personified wrath, her embodied fury."
Other origin stories involve Parvati and Shiva. Parvati is typically portrayed as a benign and friendly goddess. The Linga Purana describes Shiva asking Parvati to defeat the demon Daruka, who received a boon that would only allow a female to kill him. Parvati merges with Shiva's body, reappearing as Kali to defeat Daruka and his armies. Her bloodlust gets out of control, only calming when Shiva intervenes. The Vamana Purana has a different version of Kali's relationship with Parvati. When Shiva addresses Parvati as Kali, "the black one," she is greatly offended. Parvati performs austerities to lose her dark complexion and becomes Gauri, the golden one. Her dark sheath becomes Kausiki, who while enraged, creates Kali. Regarding the relationship between Kali, Parvati, and Shiva, Kinsley writes that:
In relation to Siva, she [Kali] appears to play the opposite role from that of Parvati. Parvati calms Siva, counterbalancing his antisocial or destructive tendencies; she brings him within the sphere of domesticity and with her soft glances urges him to moderate the destructive aspects of his tandava dance. Kali is Shiva's "other wife," as it were, provoking him and encouraging him in his mad, antisocial, disruptive habits. It is never Kali who tames Siva, but Siva who must calm Kali.
Kāli appears in the Sauptika Parvan of the Mahabharata (10.8.64). She is called Kālarātri (literally, "black night") and appears to the Pandava soldiers in dreams, until finally she appears amidst the fighting during an attack by Drona's son Ashwatthama.
Another story involving Kali is her escapade with a band of thieves. The thieves wanted to make a human sacrifice to Kali, and unwisely chose a saintly Brahmin monk as their victim. The radiance of the young monk was so much that it burned the image of Kali, who took living form and killed the entire band of thieves, decapitating them and drinking their blood.
Slayer of Raktabija
In Kāli's most famous legend, Durga and her assistants, the Matrikas, wound the demon Raktabija, in various ways and with a variety of weapons in an attempt to destroy him. They soon find that they have worsened the situation for with every drop of blood that is dripped from Raktabija he reproduces a clone of himself. The battlefield becomes increasingly filled with his duplicates. Durga summons Kāli to combat the demons. The Devi Mahatmyam describes:
Out of the surface of her (Durga's) forehead, fierce with frown, issued suddenly Kali of terrible countenance, armed with a sword and noose. Bearing the strange khatvanga (skull-topped staff ), decorated with a garland of skulls, clad in a tiger's skin, very appalling owing to her emaciated flesh, with gaping mouth, fearful with her tongue lolling out, having deep reddish eyes, filling the regions of the sky with her roars, falling upon impetuously and slaughtering the great asuras in that army, she devoured those hordes of the foes of the devas.
Kali consumes Raktabija and his duplicates, and dances on the corpses of the slain. In the Devi Mahatmya version of this story, Kali is also described as a Matrika and as a Shakti or power of Devi. She is given the epithet Cāṃuṇḍā (Chamunda), i.e. the slayer of the demons Chanda and Munda.Chamunda is very often identified with Kali and is very much like her in appearance and habit.
Iconography and forms
Kali is portrayed mostly in two forms: the popular four-armed form and the ten-armed Mahakali form. In both of her forms, she is described as being black in colour but is most often depicted as blue in popular Indian art. Her eyes are described as red with intoxication, and in absolute rage, her hair is shown disheveled, small fangs sometimes protrude out of her mouth, and her tongue is lolling. She is often shown naked or just wearing a skirt made of human arms and a garland of human heads. She is also accompanied by serpents and a jackal while standing on the calm and prostrate Shiva, usually right foot forward to symbolize the more popular Dakshinamarga or right-handed path, as opposed to the more infamous and transgressive Vamamarga or left-handed path.
In the ten-armed form of Mahakali she is depicted as shining like a blue stone. She has ten faces, ten feet, and three eyes for each head. She has ornaments decked on all her limbs. There is no association with Shiva.
The Kalika Purana describes Kali as possessing a soothing dark complexion, as perfectly beautiful, riding a lion, four-armed, holding a sword and blue lotuses, her hair unrestrained, body firm and youthful.
In spite of her seemingly terrible form, Kali Ma is often considered the kindest and most loving of all the Hindu goddesses, as she is regarded by her devotees as the Mother of the whole Universe. And because of her terrible form, she is also often seen as a great protector. When the Bengali saint Ramakrishna once asked a devotee why one would prefer to worship Mother over him, this devotee rhetorically replied, "Maharaj, when they are in trouble your devotees come running to you. But, where do you run when you are in trouble?"
Classic depictions of Kali share several features, as follows:
Kali's most common four armed iconographic image shows each hand carrying variously a sword, a trishul (trident), a severed head, and a bowl or skull-cup (kapala) catching the blood of the severed head.
Two of these hands (usually the left) are holding a sword and a severed head. The sword signifies divine knowledge and the human head signifies human ego which must be slain by divine knowledge in order to attain moksha. The other two hands (usually the right) are in the abhaya (fearlessness) and varada (blessing) mudras, which means her initiated devotees (or anyone worshipping her with a true heart) will be saved as she will guide them here and in the hereafter.
She has a garland consisting of human heads, variously enumerated at 108 (an auspicious number in Hinduism and the number of countable beads on a japamala or rosary for repetition of mantras) or 51, which represents Varnamala or the Garland of letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, Devanagari. Hindus believe Sanskrit is a language of dynamism, and each of these letters represents a form of energy, or a form of Kali. Therefore, she is generally seen as the mother of language, and all mantras.
She is often depicted naked which symbolizes her being beyond the covering of Maya since she is pure (nirguna) being-consciousness-bliss and far above prakriti. She is shown as very dark as she is brahman in its supreme unmanifest state. She has no permanent qualities—she will continue to exist even when the universe ends. It is therefore believed that the concepts of color, light, good, bad do not apply to her.
Main article: Mahakali
Mahakali (Sanskrit: Mahākālī, Devanagari: महाकाली), literally translated as "Great Kali," is sometimes considered as a greater form of Kali, identified with the Ultimate reality of Brahman. It can also be used as an honorific of the Goddess Kali, signifying her greatness by the prefix "Mahā-". Mahakali, in Sanskrit, is etymologically the feminized variant of Mahakala or Great Time (which is interpreted also as Death), an epithet of the God Shiva in Hinduism. Mahakali is the presiding Goddess of the first episode of the Devi Mahatmya. Here she is depicted as Devi in her universal form as Shakti. Here Devi serves as the agent who allows the cosmic order to be restored.
Kali is depicted in the Mahakali form as having ten heads, ten arms, and ten legs. Each of her ten hands is carrying a various implement which vary in different accounts, but each of these represent the power of one of the Devas or Hindu Gods and are often the identifying weapon or ritual item of a given Deva. The implication is that Mahakali subsumes and is responsible for the powers that these deities possess and this is in line with the interpretation that Mahakali is identical with Brahman. While not displaying ten heads, an "ekamukhi" or one headed image may be displayed with ten arms, signifying the same concept: the powers of the various Gods come only through Her grace.
Daksinakali, also spelled Dakshinakali, is the most popular form of Kali in Bengal. She is the benevolent mother, who protects her devotees and children from mishaps and misfortunes. There are various versions for the origin of the name Dakshinakali. Dakshina refers to the gift given to a priest before performing a ritual or to one's guru. Such gifts are traditionally given with the right hand. Daksinakali's two right hands are usually depicted in gestures of blessing and giving of boons. One version of the origin of her name comes from the story of Yama, lord of death, who lives in the south (daksina). When Yama heard Kali's name, he fled in terror, and so those who worship Kali are said to be able to overcome death itself.
Daksinakali is typically shown with her right foot on Shiva's chest—while depictions showing Kali with her left foot on Shiva's chest depict the even more fearsome Vamakali (Vamakali is typically shown with her right foot on Shiva's chest). Vamakali is usually worshipped by non-householders.  The pose shows the conclusion of an episode in which Kali was rampaging out of control after destroying many demons. Shiva, fearing that Kali would not stop until she destroyed the world, could only think of one way to pacify her. He lay down on the battlefield so that she would have to step on him. Seeing her consort under her foot, Kali realized that she had gone too far, and calmed down. In some interpretations of the story, Shiva was attempting to receive Kali's grace by receiving her foot on his chest.
There are many different interpretations of the pose held by Dakshinakali, including those of the 18th and 19th century bhakti poet-devotees such as Ramprasad Sen. Most have to do with battle imagery and tantric metaphysics. The most popular however is a devotional view. According to Rachel Fell McDermott, the poets portrayed Siva as "the devotee who falls at [Kali's] feet in devotion, or in surrender of his ego, or in hopes of gaining moksha by her touch. In fact, Siva is said to have become so enchanted by Kali that he performed austerities to win her, and having received the treasure of her feet, held them against his heart in reverence.
The growing popularity of worship of a more benign form of Kali, as Daksinakali, is often attributed to Krishnananda Agamavagisha. He was a noted Bengali leader of the 17th century, author of a Tantra encyclopedia called Tantrasara. According to hearsay - Kali appeared to him in a dream and told him to popularize her in a particular form that would appear to him the following day. The next morning he observed a young woman making cow dung patties. While placing a patty on a wall, she stood in the alidha pose, with her right foot forward. When she saw Krishnananda watching her, she was embarrassed and put her tongue between her teeth. Krishnananada took his previous worship of Kali out of the cremation grounds and into a more domestic setting. Krishnananda Agamavagisha was also the guru of the Kali devotee and poet Ramprasad Sen.
If the Kali steps out with the left foot and holds the sword in her right hand, she is the terrible form of Mother, the Shamshan Kali of the cremation ground.Shamshan Kali is also known as the Vamakali.  She is worshiped by tantrics, the followers of Tantra, who believe that one's spiritual discipline practised in a smashan (cremation ground) brings success quickly. A well known Shamshan Kali can be found in Barabelun, located in Bardhaman District of West Bengal. Known as "Boro-Ma" or the Big Mother, this Kali is estimated to be over 550 years old. The 24 foot high idol is worshipped and revered by the masses.
Other forms of Kali popularly worshipped in Bengal include Raksha Kali (form of Kali worshipped for protection against epidemics and drought), Bhadra Kali, Chamunda Kali and Guhya Kali
There are many different interpretations of the symbolic meanings of Kali's depiction, depending on a Tantric or devotional approach, and on whether one views her image symbolically, allegorically, or mystically.
There are many varied depictions of the different forms of Kali. The most common shows her with four arms and hands, showing aspects of creation and destruction. The two right hands are often held out in blessing, one in a mudra saying "fear not" (abhayamudra), the other conferring boons. Her left hands hold a severed head and blood-covered sword. The sword severs the bondage of ignorance and ego, represented by the severed head. One interpretation of Kali's tongue is that the red tongue symbolizes the rajasic nature being conquered by the white (symbolizing sattvic) nature of the teeth. Her blackness represents that she is nirguna, beyond all qualities of nature, and transcendent.
The most widespread interpretation of Kali's extended tongue involve her embarrassment over the sudden realization that she has stepped on her husband's chest. Kali's sudden "modesty and shame" over that act is the prevalent interpretation among Oriya Hindus. The biting of the tongue conveys the emotion of lajja or modesty, an expression that is widely accepted as the emotion being expressed by Kali.
नमस्ते दोस्तों! Shivratri in hindi के आर्टिकल में आपका HimanshuGrewal.com पर स्वागत है आज मै आपको महाशिवरात्रि history के बारें में बहुत सारी रहस्मय जानकारी बताऊंगा.
सबसे पहले में आपको यह बता देता हूँ की महाशिवरात्रि कब है (Shivratri kab hai) उसके बाद जानेंगे की यह त्यौहार क्यों मनाया जाता है, क्याँ हुआ था इस दिन, और पूजा के समय क्या-क्या समग्री की आवश्यकता पड़ेगी और किन-किन जगहों पर शिवलिंग की स्थापना हुई हैं.
Maha shivratri 2017 date and day : Saturday, February 25 (२५ फरवरी शनिवार के दिन)
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महाशिवरात्रि पर निबंध – Essay on Mahashivratri in hindi
Shivratri festival : भारत में महाशिवरात्रि का त्यौहार हिन्दुओं के लिए एक प्रमुख त्योहार है. यह भगवान शिव का एक प्रमुख पर्व या उत्सव है.
फाल्गुन कृष्ण चतुर्दशी के दिन शिव-रात्रि का यह पर्व बहुत ही धूम-धाम से पूरे भारत देश में मनाया जाता है. इतिहास के शास्त्रों के अनुसार माना जाता है कि जब सृष्टि का प्रारंभ होने वाला था तो इसी दिन मध्य-रात्रि भगवान शंकर का ब्रह्मा से रूद्र के रूप में अवतार हुआ था.
महाशिवरात्रि क्यों मनाई जाती है ?
एक बार ऐसा हुआ था की शिव रात्रि के दिन प्रदोष के वक्त भगवान शिव तांडव कर रहे थे और तांडव करते हुए ही उन्होंने ब्रह्मांड को अपनी तीसरे नेत्र की ज्वाला से विश्व को समाप्त कर देते. इसलिए इसी दिन को महा शिवरात्रि अथवा कालरात्रि के रूप से मनाया जाता है.
कई जगह पर तो यह चर्चा भी होती है की इसी दिन भगवान शिव का विवाह भी हुआ था. तीनों भुवनों की अपार सुन्दरी और शीलवती गैरों को अर्धांगिनी बनाने वाले भगवान शिवजी प्रेतों व पिशाचों के बीच घिरे रहते हैं.
उनका जो रूप है वो सबसे अजीब है. शरीर (बॉडी) पर सम्सानों की भस्म है, उनके गले में सर्पो की माला, कंठ में विष, जटाओ में पावन-गंगा और माथे में प्रलयंकर ज्वाला है.
शिवजी बैल को अपना वाहन के रूप में प्रोयोग करते है. शिव अमंगल रूप होने पर भी भक्तों का मंगल करते है और धन-सम्पत्ति प्रदान करते है.
पूरे साल में 12 शिव-त्योहर होते है जिसमे से एक महाशिवरात्रि को सबसे ज्यादा महत्वपूर्ण त्यौहार माना जाता है.
महाशिवरात्रि पूजाविधि – Mahashivratri puja vidhi
शिवरात्रि के पावन अवसर पर भगवान शिव का अभिषेक भिन-भिन तरीके से किया जाता है.
- जलाभिषेक : जो की जल (पानी) से किया जाता है|
- दूध : दूसरा दूध से किया जाया है|
सुबह-सुबह भगवान शिव के मन्दिरों में भक्तो की बहुत लम्बी लाइन जमा हो जाती है वे सभी शिवलिंग की पूजा करने के लिए आते है और भगवान से अपने और अपने चाहने वालो के लिए प्रार्थना करते हैं.
सभी भक्त सूर्योदय के वक्त पवित्र स्थानों पर स्नान करने के लिए जाते है जैसे की गंगा या फिर खुजराहो के शिव सागर में या फिर किसी अन्य पवित्र जल स्रोत में. स्नान शरीर को शुद्ध करता है जोकि सभी हिन्दू त्योहारों के लिए बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण हैं.
जब स्नान कर लेते हो तो उसके बाद साफ़ कपड़े (स्वच्छ वस्त्र) पहनने होते है. सभी भक्त शिवलिंग स्नान करने के लिए मंदिर के अन्दर पानी का बर्तन ले जाते हैं.
सभी महिलाये और पुरुष दोनों सूर्य शिव और विष्णु की प्रार्थना करते हैं. इसमें आपको 3 या 7 बार शिवलिंग की परिक्रमा करनी होती है. और फिर उसमे पानी और दूध भी डालते हैं.
शिव पुराण के अनुसार, महाशिवरात्रि पूजा में 6 वस्तुओ को जरुर शामिल करना चाहिए जिसके बारे में आप आगे पड़ोगे.
- शिव लिंग का जल (पानी), शहद और दूध के साथ अभिषेक. बेर या बेर के पत्ते जो आत्मा की शुद्धि का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं;
- स्नान के बाद शिवलिंग को सिंदूर का पेस्ट लगाया जाता है| यह पुण्य का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है;
- फल, यह दीर्घायु और इच्छाओं की संतुष्टि को दर्शाते हैं;
- धन, जलती धूप, उपज (अनाज);
- दीपक, यह ज्ञान की प्राप्ति के लिए बहुत ही अनुकूल है;
- सांसारिक सुखों के लिए पान के पत्ते बहुत जरूरी है यह संतोष अंकन करते हैं;
भगवान शिव की अन्य पारंपरिक पूजा
‘बारह ज्योतिर्लिंग’ जिसका अर्थ है (प्रकाश के लिंग) यह पूजा के लिए शिव भगवान के पवित्र धार्मिक स्थल और केन्द्रों में से है. यह स्वयम्भू के रूप में जाने जाते हैं, जिसका अनमोल अर्थ हैं “स्वयं उत्पन्न”. 12 जगह पर 12 ज्योर्तिलिंग स्थापित हैं जिसको नीचे आप जानोगे.
- सोमनाथ, यह शिवलिंग आपको गुजरात के काठियावाड़ स्थान पर मिलेगा.
- श्री शैल मल्लिकार्जुन, यह शिवलिंग आपको मद्रास में कृष्ण नदी के किनारे वाले पर्वत पर स्थापित मिलेगा जिसका नाम श्री शैल मल्लिकार्जुन शिवलिंग है.
- महाकाल उज्जैन में अवंति नगर स्थापित आपको महाकालेश्वर नाम का शिवलिंग मिलेगा. यहाँ पर शिव भगवान ने दैत्यों का नाश किया था.
- ॐकारेश्वर, यह मध्यप्रदेश के एक धार्मिक स्थान ओंकारेश्वर में नर्मदा के तट पर पर्वतराज विंध्य की कठीन तपस्या से प्रसंग होकर वरदाने देने हुए शिवजी इस स्थान पर प्रकट हुए थे. उसी समय से इस स्थान पर ममलेश्वर ज्योतिर्लिंग स्थापित हो गया था.
- नागेश्वर, यह ज्योतिर्लिंग आपको गुजरात के द्वारकाधाम के निकट मिलेगा.
- बैजनाथ ज्योतिर्लिंग, जोकि बिहार के बैद्यनाथ धाम में स्थापित है.
- भीमाशंकर, यह ज्योतिर्लिंग आपको महाराष्ट्र में भीमा नदी के किनारे स्थापित मिलेगा.
- त्र्यंम्बकेश्वर ज्योतिर्लिंग नासिक (महाराष्ट्र) से 25 किलोमीटर दूर त्र्यंम्बकेश्वर में स्थापित है.
- घुमेश्वर, घुमेश्वर ज्योतिर्लिंग आपको महाराष्ट्र स्टेट के औरंगाबाद जिले में एलोरा गुफा के समीप वेसल गाँव में मिलेगा.
- केदारनाथ ज्योतिर्लिंग हिमालय का दुर्गम ज्योतिर्लिंग है जोकि हरिद्वार से 150 मिल दूरी पर ही स्थित है.
- विश्वनाथ ज्योतिर्लिंग जो काशी विश्वनाथ मंदिर में स्थापित हैं.
- रामेश्वरम, यह ज्योतिर्लिंग श्रीराम द्वारा स्थापित है जो आपको मद्रास में समुंद्र तट के निकट मिलेगा.
यह थी कुछ बाते महाशिवरात्रि के बारे में. मैं आशा करता हूँ की आपको इस आर्टिकल में वो सारी जानकारी मिली होगी जो आप जानना चाहते थे.
अगर आपको इस आर्टिकल में कुछ कमी दिखे और अगर आप इस पावन दिन के बारे में कुछ जानते हो जिसको आप हमारे साथ शेयर करना चाहते हो तो आप कमेंट के माध्यम से हमारे साथ शेयर कर सकते हो और इस शिवरात्रि के इस आर्टिकल को अपने दोस्तों के साथ सोशल मीडिया पर शेयर जरुर करें. घन्यवाद…! 🙂