Essay On Growing Energy Needs Are Supplied

  • Bleviss, D. L. (1988).The new oil crisis and fuel economy technologies: Preparing the light transportation industry for the 1990s. Westport, CT: Quorum.Google Scholar

  • British Petroleum (1990).BP Statistical Review of World Energy. London: Author.Google Scholar

  • Brower, M. (1990).Cool energy: The renewable solution to global warming. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.Google Scholar

  • Brobst, D. A., & Pratt, W. P. [Eds.]. (1973).U.S. mineral resources. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Brown, H. (1954).The Challenge of Man's Future. New York: Viking.Google Scholar

  • Brown, L. R., Durning, A., Flavin, C., French, H., Jacobson, J., Lowe, M., Postel, S., Renner, M., Starke, L., & Young, J. (1990).State of the world 1990. New York: Norton.Google Scholar

  • Bureau of the Census. (1972).Historical statistics of the United States, colonial times to 1970. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Bureau of the Census (1989).Statistical Abstract of the United States 1989. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Carlsmith, R. S., Chandler, W. U., McMahon, J. E., & Santini, D. J. (1990).Energy efficiency: how far can we go? (Report ORNL/TM-11441). Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.Google Scholar

  • Central Intelligence Agency. (1989).The World Factbook 1989. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Commoner, B. (1971).The closing circle. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar

  • Commoner, B. (1990).Making peace with the planet. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar

  • Cook, E. (1976).Man, energy, society. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar

  • Darmstadter, J. (1968).Energy in the world economy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar

  • Deese, D. A., & Nye, J. S. (1981).Energy and security. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar

  • Ehrlich, P. R. (1986).The Machinery of Nature. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar

  • Ehrlich, P. R., & Ehrlich, A. H. (1990).The population explosion. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar

  • Ehrlich, P. R., & Holdren, J. P. (1971). Impact of population growth.Science, 171 1212–1217.Google Scholar

  • Ehrlich, P. R., & Holdren, J. P. (1972. May). One-dimensional ecology.Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. pp. 16–27.Google Scholar

  • Ehrlich, P. R., Ehrlich, A. H., & Holdren, J. P. (1977).Ecoscience: population, resources, environment. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar

  • Energy Information Administration. (1989).International Energy Annual 1988. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Energy Information Administration. (1990).Monthly Energy Review (January). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Farinelli, U., & Valant, P. (1990). Energy as a source of potential conflicts.International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 2 31–40.Google Scholar

  • Gleick, P. H. (1989). The implications of global climatic changes for international security.Climatic Change, 15 309–325.Google Scholar

  • Gleick, P. H. (1990). Climate change and international politics.Ambio 18, 333–339.Google Scholar

  • Goldemberg, J., Johansson, T. B., Reddy, A. K. N., & Williams, R. H. (1987).Energy for a Sustainable World. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar

  • Graedel, T. E., & Crutzen, P. J. (1989. September). The changing atmosphere.Scientific American, pp. 58–68.Google Scholar

  • Haefele, W. (1990. September). Energy from nuclear power.Scientific American, pp 136–144.Google Scholar

  • Haefele, W. (1981).Energy in a Finite World: A Global Systems Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar

  • Hall, C. A. S., Cleveland, C. J., & Kaufmann, R. (1986).Energy and resource quality: The ecology of the economic process. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

  • Hall, D. O., Barnard, G. W., & Moss, P. A. (1982).Biomass for energy in developing countries. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar

  • Harte, J. (1985).Consider a spherical cow: a course in environmental problem solving. Los Altos, CA: Kaufmann.Google Scholar

  • Hirst, E. (1990). Why the federal government should help improve US energy efficiency.Ambio 19, 96–98.Google Scholar

  • Hirst, E., Clinton, J., Geller, H., & Kroner, W. (1986).Energy efficiency in buildings: Progress and promise. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P. (1986). Energy and the human predicament. In K. R. Smith, F. Fesharaki, & J. P. Holdren [Eds.].Earth and the human future: essays in honor of Harrison Brown (pp. 124–160). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P. (1987). Global environmental issues related to energy supply.Energy, 12 975–992.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P. (1989). Civilian nuclear technologies and nuclear weapons proliferation. In C. Schaerf, B. Holden-Reid, & D. Carlton [Eds.].New technologies and the arms race (pp 161–198). London: MacMillan.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P. (1990. September). Energy in transition.Scientific American, pp. 156–163.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P., & Ehrlich, P. R. (1974). Human population and the global environment.American Scientist, 62 282–292.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P., Anderson, K. B., Deibler, P. M., Gleick. P. H., Mintzer, I. M., & Morris, G. P. (1983). In C. C. Travis & E. L. Etnier [Eds.].Health risks of energy technologies (pp. 141–208). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar

  • Holdren, J. P., Berwald, D., Budnitz, R., Crocker, J., Delene, J. G., Endicott, R., Kazimi, M., Krakowski, R., Logan, G., & Schultz, K. (1988). Exploring the competitive potential of magnetic fusion energy: The interaction of economics with safety and environmental characteristics.Fusion Technology, 13 7–56.Google Scholar

  • Hubbert, M. K. (1969). Energy resources. In National Research Council,Resources and Man (pp. 157–241). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar

  • Hughart, D. (1979).Prospects for traditional and non-conventional energy sources in developing countries. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (1990).Policymakers summary of the scientific assessment of climate change. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.Google Scholar

  • International Energy Agency (1989).Electricity conservation. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar

  • Johansson, T. B., Bodlund, B., & Williams, R. H. [Eds.]. (1989).Electricity: Efficient end-use and new generation technologies and their planning implications. Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press.Google Scholar

  • Lashof, D. A., & Tirpak, D. A. [Eds.]. (1989).Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar

  • Lipschutz, R. D., & Holdren, J. P. (1990). Crossing borders: Resource flows, the global environment, and international security.Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 21 121–133.Google Scholar

  • Lovins, A., & Sardinsky, R. (1988).The state of the art: lighting. (Competitek report). Old Snowmass, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute.Google Scholar

  • Miller, A. S., Mintzer, I. M., & Hoaglund, S. H. (1986).Growing power: Bioenergy for development and industry. (WRI Study No. 5). Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar

  • Myers, Norman. [Ed.]. (1984).Gaia: An atlas of planetary management. London: Gaia Books.Google Scholar

  • National Research Council, Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. (1990).Energy in transition 1985–2010. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar

  • Ogden, J. M., & Williams, R. H. (1989).Solar hydrogen: moving beyond fossil fuels. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar

  • Okken, P., Swart, R., & Zwerver, S. [Eds.] (1989).Climate and energy: The feasibility of controlling CO2emissions. Dorchtecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Office of Technology Assessment. (1983).Industrial energy use. (Report OTA-E-198). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

  • Population Reference Bureau. (1990).1990 World Population Data Sheet. New York: Author.Google Scholar

  • Rosenfeld, A. H., & Hafemeister, D. (1988, April). Energy-efficient buildings.Scientific American, pp. 78–85.Google Scholar

  • Ross, M. (1989). Energy and transportation in the United States.Annual Review of Energy, 14 131–171.Google Scholar

  • Schipper, L., & Ketoff, A. (1989). Energy efficiency: The perils of a plateau.Energy Policy, 17 538–542.Google Scholar

  • Schipper, L., Howarth, R., & Geller, H. (in press). United States energy use between 1983 and 1987: The impacts of greater efficiency.Annual Review of Energy.Google Scholar

  • Schneider, S. H. (1989).Global warming. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.Google Scholar

  • Schneider, S. H., & Londer, R. (1986).The coevolution of climate and life. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.Google Scholar

  • Smith, K. R. (1987).Biofuels, air pollution, and health. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar

  • Solar Energy Research Institute. (1981).A new prosperity: Building a sustainable energy future. Andover, MA: Brick House.Google Scholar

  • Solar Energy Research Institute. (1989).The potential of renewable energy. [Prepared jointly with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Sandia National Laboratories]. Golden, CO: Author.Google Scholar

  • Study of Critical Environmental Problems (1970).Man's impact on the global environment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Sweet, W. (1984).The nuclear age: power, proliferation, and the arms race. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.Google Scholar

  • UN Environment Programme (1987).Environmental data report. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Williams, R. H. (1990).Hydrogen from coal with gas and oil well sequestering of the recovered CO2. Unpublished manuscript. Princeton University, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies.Google Scholar

  • Williams, R. H., Larson, E. D., & Ross, M. (1987). Materials, affluence, and industrial energy use.Annual Review of Energy, 12 99–144.Google Scholar

  • World Bank. (1983).The energy transition in developing countries. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar

  • World Bank. (1990).World Development Report 1989. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • World Energy Conference. (1983).Energy 2000–2020: World prospects and regional stresses. London: Graham and Trotman.Google Scholar

  • World Resources Institute (1990).World resources 1990–91: A guide to the global environment. [In collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Development Programme]. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Yergin, D. (1988). Energy security in the 1990s.Foreign Affairs, 67(1 110–132.Google Scholar

  • This paper aims to predict the future situation of global energy development. In view of this, we reviewed the history of energy use and understood that new energy sources will usher in a new era following oil & gas, coal and wood one after another in the past time. Although the fossil energy sources are still plenty in the world, great breakthroughs made in some key technologies and the increasing demand for ecological environmental protection both impel the third time of transformation from oil & gas to new energy sources. Sooner or later, oil, gas, coal and new energy sources will each account for a quarter of global energy consumption in the new era, specifically speaking, accounting for 32.6%, 23.7%, 30.0% and 13.7% respectively. As one of the largest coal consumer, China will inevitably face up to the situation of tripartite confrontation of the coal, oil & gas and new energy. The following forecasting results were achieved. First, the oil will be in a stable period and its annual production peak will be around 2040, reaching up to 45 × 108 t. Second, the natural gas will enter the heyday period and its annual production peak will be around 2060, reaching up to 4.5 × 1012 m3, which will play a pivotal role in the future energy sustainable development. Third, the coal has entered a high-to-low-carbon transition period, and its direct use and the discharged pollutants will be significantly reduced. In 2050, the coal will be dropped to 25% of the primary energy mix. Last, the development and utilization of new energy sources has been getting into the golden age and its proportion in the primary energy mix will be substantially enhanced. On this basis, we presented some proposals for the future energy development in China. At first, we should understand well that China's energy production and consumption has its own characteristics. Under the present situation, we should strengthen the clean and efficient use of coal resources, which is the key to solving our energy and environmental issues. Then, under the low oil price circumstance, we should keep 200 million tons of annual oil production as “the bottom line” so as to ensure national energy security and to accelerate tight gas, shale gas and other unconventional resources development. In 2030, the annual natural gas production will reach up to more than 300 Bcm. Finally, the development and utilization of new energy resources should be further strengthened and non-fossil energy sources will be expected to reach as high as 20% of the primary energy consumption by 2030.

    0 comments

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *