Citing Online References Harvard Style Bibliography

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Harvard Format Citation Guide

This is a complete guide to Harvard in-text and reference list citations.This easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. Check out our other citation guides on APA and MLA 8 referencing.

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1. Harvard Referencing Basics: Reference List

A reference list is a complete list of all the sources used when creating a piece of work. This list includes information about the sources like the author, date of publication, title of the source and more. A Harvard reference list must:

  • Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document

  • Be organised alphabetically by author, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source title, excluding articles such as a, an or the

    • If there are multiple works by the same author these are ordered by date, if the works are in the same year they are ordered alphabetically by the title and are allocated a letter (a,b,c etc) after the date

  • Be double spaced: there should be a full, blank line of space between each line of text

  • Contain full references for all in-text references used

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2. Harvard Referencing Basics: In-Text

In-text references must be included following the use of a quote or paraphrase taken from another piece of work.

In-text references are references written within the main body of text and refer to a quote or paraphrase. They are much shorter than full references. The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author(s)’s or editor(s)’s surname, year of publication and page number(s). Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form:

Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states.. Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

(Note: p. refers to a single page, pp. refers to a range of pages)

Two or Three Authors:

When citing a source with two or three authors, state all surnames like so:

Mitchell, Smith and Thomson (2017, p. 189) states… Or

(Mitchell, Coyne and Thomson, 2017, p. 189)

Four or More Authors:

In this case, the first author’s surname should be stated followed by ‘et al’:

Mitchell et al (2017, p. 189) states… Or (Mitchell et al, 2017, p, 189)

No Author:

If possible, use the organisation responsible for the post in place of the author. If not, use the title in italics:

(A guide to citation, 2017, pp. 189-201)

Multiple Works From the Same Author in the Same Year:

If referencing multiple works from one author released in the same year, the works are allocated a letter (a, b, c etc) after the year. This allocation is done in the reference list so is done alphabetically according to the author's surname and source title:

(Mitchell, 2017a, p. 189) or Mitchell (2017b, p. 189)

Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:

List the in-text citations in the normal way but with semicolons between different references:

(Mitchell, 2017, p. 189; Smith, 200; Andrews, 1989, pp. 165-176)

Citing Different Editions of the Same Work in One Parentheses:

Include the author(s)’s name only once followed by all the appropriate dates separated by semicolons:

Mitchell (2010; 2017) states… Or (Mitchell, 2010; 2017)

Citing a Reference With No Date:

In this case simply state ‘no date’ in place of the year: (Mitchell, no date, p. 189).

Citing a Secondary Source:

In this case, state the reference you used first followed by ‘cited in’ and the original author:

Smith 2000 (cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) or (Smith, 2000, cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

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3. How to Cite Different Source Types

  • In-text citations remain quite constant across source types, unless mentioned explicitly, assume the in-text citation uses the rules stated above

  • Reference list references vary quite a lot between sources.

How to Cite a Book in Harvard Format

Book referencing is the simplest format in Harvard referencing style. The basic format is as follows:

Book Referencing Example:

Mitchell, J.A. and Thomson, M. (2017) A guide to citation.3rd edn. London: London Publishings.

How to Cite an Edited Book in Harvard Format

Edited books are collations of chapters written by different authors. Their reference format is very similar to the book reference except instead of the author name, the editor name is used followed by (eds.) to distinguish them as an editor. The basic format is:

Editor surname(s), initial(s). (eds.) (Year Published). Title. Edition. Place of

publication: publishers

Edited Book Example:

William, S.T. (eds.) (2015) Referencing: a guide to citation rules. New York: My Publisher

How to Cite a Chapter in an Edited Book in Harvard Format

For citing chapters, you need to add the chapter author and chapter title to the reference. The basic format is as follows:

Chapter in an Edited Book Example:

Troy B.N. (2015) ‘Harvard citation rules’ in Williams, S.T. (ed.) A guide to citation rules. New York: NY Publishers, pp. 34-89.

In-Text Citations: Chapter in an Edited Book

Use the chapter author surname, not the editor.

How to Cite an E-Book in Harvard Format

To reference an e-book, information about its collection, location online and the date it was accessed are needed as well as author name, title and year of publishing:

If the e-book is accessed via an e-book reader the reference format changes slightly:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year Published). Title. Edition. E-book format [e-book reader]. Available at URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

This includes information about the e-book format and reader, for instance this could be ‘Kindle e-book [e-book reader]’.

E-Book Example:

Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M. and Coyne, R.P. (2017) A guide to citation. E-book library [online]. Available at: https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 10 September 2016)

How to Cite a Journal Article in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a journal article is:

Journal Article Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9), p70-81.

Journal Article Online Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9) [online]. Available at:  https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 15 November 2016)

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

Citing a newspaper article is similar to citing a journal article except, instead of the volume and issue number, the edition and date of publication are needed:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month,

page number(s).

Note: edition is used only where applicable.

Newspaper Article Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017) ‘Changes to citation formats shake the research world’, The Mendeley Telegraph (Weekend edition), 6 July, pp.9-12.

How to Cite an Online Journal or Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

To cite an online journal or newspaper article, the page numbers section from the print journal or newspaper reference is swapped with the URL or DOI the article can be accessed from and when it was accessed. So the reference for an online journal article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’,  Title of journal, volume(issue/season) [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

And the reference for an online newspaper article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

How to Cite Non-Print Material in Harvard Format

How to Cite an Online Photograph in Harvard Format

The basic format is as follows:

Photograph surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of photograph [online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Online Photograph Example:

Millais, J.E. (1851-1852) Ophelia [online]. Available at: www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/millais-ophelia-n01506 (Accessed: 21 June 2014)

How to Cite a Film in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a film is:

Film Example:

Rear Window (1954) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.

How to Cite a TV Programme in Harvard Format

The basic format for citing a TV programme is as follows:

TV Programme Example:

‘Fly’ (2010) Breaking Bad, Series 2, episode 10. AMC, 23 May 2010.

How to Cite Music in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite an album is as follows:

Music Example:

Beyonce (2016) Lemonade [Visual Album] New York: Parkwood Records. Available at: https://www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/ (Accessed: 17 February 2016).

How to Cite a Website in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a website is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year of publishing)  Title of page/site [Online[. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Website Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017) How and when to reference [Online]. Available at: https://www.howandwhentoreference.com/ (Accessed: 27 May 2017)

To learn more about citing a web page and entire websites in APA, MLA or Harvard check out How to Cite a Website post.

For a summary of all the references for each source type along with examples take a look at our Ultimate Citation Cheat Sheet. It also contains examples for MLA 8 and APA formats.

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This extensive FAQ list is provided to help you find answers to many more unusual questions relating to citing references. Contact your nearest Library if you cannot find your answer in the present list.

Act of Parliament

Authors, multiple

Author, none

Bibliography

Blog

Capitalisation

Chapter in an edited book or reader

Citation - definition

Citing authors whose original work you have not read

Collaborative works

Conference proceedings and papers

Corporate author

Dates, multiple

Date, none

Diagram

Discussion board message

Discussion lists

DVD / Video

Editions

Electronic book

Electronic journal articles

Et al.

Foreign language material

Graph

Image / Table

Internet Sources

Lecture

Missing information

Multiple sources by the same author

Newspaper article

Patent

Personal communication

Photograph

Place of publication, none

Podcast

Publisher, none

Quotations

Quotations, long

Quotations, short

Reference - definition

References list

Report

Secondary referencing, or citing authors whose original work you have not read

Table

Television programme

Thesis or dissertation

Title page - definition

Translations

Web pages

Wiki

Working paper

YouTube film

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Act of Parliament

In your citation provide the name of the act and the year:

(Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001)

In the reference in your bibliography, write the name of the act and the year in italics. You also need to include the chapter number:

Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001. c. 10.

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Authors, multiple

If the work has two authors, give both:

Lancaster, G. and Massingham, L. 1993. Marketing management. London: McGraw-Hill.

Include both authors' names when citing the work in your text:

(Lancaster and Massingham 1993)

If you are citing a work with more than two authors just give the first author's name and use et al. (and others) to indicate that there are more authors:

(McCulloch et al. 2000)

In your references list, either provide the surnames and initials of all authors or use et al. after the first author's name:

McCulloch, N. et al. 2000. Poverty, inequality and growth in Zambia during the 1990s. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

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Author, none

If there is no author of the book or web you would like to reference, it is acceptable to reference the source by its title:

Oxford English Dictionary. 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

In your bibliography, slot the reference into your alphabetical list according to the title:

Nash, E. L. 2000. Direct marketing: strategy, planning, execution. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Oxford English Dictionary, 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Shimp, T.A. 1993. Promotion management & marketing communications. 3rd ed. Forth Worth: Dryden Press.

A work with no author would be cited in your text by using the title and the publication year: (Oxford English Dictionary 1989)

If you are referencing a newspaper article or journal article which has no author, then use the title of the publication instead:

South Wales Echo. 2012. Students 'more career driven'. 8 February 2012, p.13.

In your citation use the title of the publication, in italics, then the year.

e.g. (South Wales Echo 2012)

Be aware, however, if no named person or persons is given as the author(s) the work may have a corporate author.

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Bibliography

See References list.

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Blog

Include the name of the blog author, the title of the message, the name of the web site and the date the message was posted.

Bradley, P. 2010. Top 100 tools for learning 2010. Phil Bradley's web log [Online] 12 June 2010. Available at: http://www.philbradley.typepad.com/ [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

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Capitalisation

Capitalise the first letter of each author's last name and each initial.

Also capitalise the first letter of the publication title written in italics, the first letters of all main words in the title of a journal and all first letters of a place name and publisher.

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Chapter in an edited book or reader

A single chapter within, say, an edited book of essays by different individuals, would be referenced as follows:

Knudsden, H. 2003. European works councils: a difficult question for trade unions. In: Foster, D. and Scott, P. eds. Trade unions in Europe: meeting the challenge. Brussels: Peter Lang, pp. 145-166.

In your text, you would cite this using the author of the chapter you are referring to: (Knudsden 2003)

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Citation — definition

Briefly, citing means referring within your text to sources which you have used in the course of your research. In the Harvard style, this means providing the author's surname and the date of publication e.g.

It has been argued (Harris 2001) that the main considerations are...

It has been argued by Harris (2001) that the main considerations are...

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Citing authors whose original work you have not read

See Secondary referencing

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Collaborative works

Sources such as encyclopaedias and dictionaries, which have many contributors, can be referenced by the title:

Oxford English Dictionary. 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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Conference proceedings and papers

The first element of a reference to a conference proceeding should be the person or organisation responsible for editing the proceedings. The place and date of the conference should also be included:

Redknap, M. et al. eds. 2001. Fourth International Conference on Insular Art. National Museum & Gallery, Cardiff, 3-6 September 1998. Oxford: Oxbow.

If no editor is traceable, substitute this with the name of the conference:

Building on the evidence: proceedings of the second conference on evidence-based Practice. 1999. 16-17 April 1999. Norwich: Norfolk Healthcare Trust.

This should be cited within your text as (Building on the evidence, 1999)

If you are citing an individual paper within the conference proceedings, the author of the paper should be the first element of the reference. The page numbers of the paper, within the proceedings as a whole, should be included:

Fledelius, H.C. 2000. Myopia and significant visual impairment: global aspects. In: Lin, L.L.-K. et al. eds. Myopia Updates II: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Myopia. Taipei, 17-20 November, 1998. Tokyo: Springer, pp. 31-37.

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Corporate author

An organisation may be the 'author' of a work, instead of a named individual:

Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. 2004. Planning and pollution control. London: TSO.

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Dates, multiple

If a book has been through several editions there may be several copyright dates on the back of the title page. Take the latest date as your publication date — this is the publication date of the book you are holding.

Be sure to take the latest publication date, not the latest reprint date, which may be more recent. A reprint is not a new edition.

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Date, none

If there is no date of publication, put [no date] in the reference:

Horsfall, N. [No date]. A companion to the study of Virgil. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

This should be cited In your text as follows:

(Horsfall [no date])

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Diagram

See Image / Table

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Discussion board message

When referencing a message on a discussion board in the virtual learning environment, include the following details:

Author. Year. Title of message. Title of discussion board. In: Name of academic module [Online] Day Month Year of post. Available at: URL of virtual learning environment [Accessed: Day Month Year].

For example:

Smith, A. 2010. Quality of Wikipedia articles. Wikipedia debate discussion board. In: Study Skills [Online] 12 June 2010. Available at: http://cue.cf.ac.uk [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

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Discussion lists

Little, L. 2002. Two new policy briefs. ECPOLICY discussion list [Online] 16 April 2002. Available at: http://www.askeric.org/ Virtual Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Msg00003.html [Accessed: 8th November 2003].

For all email references, the title of the message comes from the email subject line.

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DVD / Video

As a minimum provide the title, director, distributor and date:

Super size me. 2005. Directed by Morgan Spurlock [DVD]. London: Tartan Video.

For a video write [Videocassette] instead of [DVD]

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Editions

Provide the publication date for the edition which you have consulted - a newer edition will usually have been substantially revised, so you need to make clear which edition of the text you are referring to.

It is important to indicate the number of the edition, if it is not the first, as in the following example:

Nash, E. L. 2000. Direct marketing: strategy, planning, execution. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.

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Electronic book

eBooks accessed via LibrarySearch or the eLibrary may be referenced in the same way as their print equivalents.

If you have downloaded an eBook from a web site e.g. eBooks.com or Amazon onto your computer, eReader or mobile device, then reference it as follows:

Author. Year of edition you used. Title [eBook version]. Place: Publisher. Available at: URL [Accessed: day month year].

Howson, C. 2007. Successful business intelligence: secrets to making BI a killer app [PDF for Digital Editions version]. New York: McGraw Hill. Available at: http://www.ebooks.com/330687/successful-business-intelligence/howson-cindi/ [Accessed: 6 October 2011].

Roubini, N. and Mihm, S. 2011. Crisis economics: a crash course in the future of finance [Kindle version]. London: Penguin. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Crisis-Economics-Course-Finance-ebook/dp/B004Y4WMHW/ref=sr_1_7?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1317896488&sr=1-7 [Accessed: 6 October 2011].

If the eReader version of the book does not include page numbers, use the chapter and then paragraph numbers in your citation:

(Smith 2007, chapter 2, para. 4)

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Electronic journal articles

Use this if the journal is only available online or differs from its printed equivalent:

Paulussen, S. 2004. Online news production in Flanders: how Flemish online journalists perceive and explore the internet's potential. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication [Online] 9(4). Available at: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol9/issue4/paulussen.html [Accessed: 12 September 2006].

Include the url, date when you accessed the article and the volume and issue numbers, if available.

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Et al.

See Authors, multiple

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Foreign language material

If you are writing a piece of research in the English language but are referring to sources which are written in other languages:

Either give the source title exactly as it appears in the original language, or give an English translation of it in square brackets with a language descriptor at the end, e.g.

Thurfjell, W. 1975. Vart har våran doktor tagit vägen? Läkartidningen 72, p. 789.

or

Thurfjell, W. 1975. [Where has our doctor gone?]. Läkartidningen 72, p. 789. (In Swedish).

If there had just been an English summary to the full Swedish document you would have acknowledged this as: "(in Swedish with English summary)".

In choosing which method to adopt, it is wise to consider whether or not your reader is likely to be familiar with the original language. Whichever method you choose, be consistent throughout the piece of work and its bibliography.

Sources which you have read in the English translation are treated differently, e.g.

Alberti, L. 1974. Music through the ages. Translated from the Italian, by R. Pierce. London: Cassell. (Originally published in 1968).

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Graph

See Image / Table

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Image / Table

Provide the title of the image, figure or table followed by the citation:

Figure 14. Dwelling prices, London compared with UK, 1993-1999 (ONS, GOL and LC 2000)

Or, if there is no title, state the source underneath it:

Source: Indiana University School of Education (2004)

Then, in your bibliography, provide a full reference appropriate to the type of source the item is from. For example, if referencing an image found in a book, follow the guidelines for referencing a book.

When re-using images, diagrams, graphs or tables created by others, they are usually protected by copyright. Under the University's copyright licence, it is usually permissible to use images, tables etc. in non-commercial research or private study, including coursework. They must not be used in published works or made publicly available in an electronic or online format without seeking permission from the author. However, in some cases the author may state their permission for their work to be re-used or apply a Creative Commons licence to the image. For more information see http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/stillimages/advice/copyright-and-still-images-frequently-asked-questions

To find copyright free images, try using a royalty free image site or the Creative Commons search engine http://search.creativecommons.org/. Always check the author's terms of use to see if permission is granted. If the author does not state any terms of use then assume that the item is protected by copyright.

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Internet Sources

See:

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Lecture

Jackson, C. 2010. Citing and referencing in the Harvard style. [Lecture to BSc Astrology Year 1]. Cardiff University, 14 June 2010.

For lecture notes or presentations provided on the virtual learning environment, you should write your reference as follows:

Name of tutor. Year. Title of lecture. Name of module [Online]. University. Available at: URL of virtual learning environment [Accessed: Day month year].

For example:

Jackson, C. 2010. Citing and referencing in the Harvard style. Study skills [Online]. Cardiff University. Available at: http://cue.cf.ac.uk [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

Please note that in some circumstances it may not be appropriate for you to cite and reference lectures. Check with your lecturer or tutor before referring to them in your assessed work.

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Missing information

   See: Author, none, Date, none, Publisher, none.

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Multiple sources by the same author

In your list of references, arrange any references with the same author by the year of publication, beginning with the oldest.

If referencing sources written by the same author and published in the same year, use letters after the publication year to distinguish between them.

Boyne, G. (2002a)

Boyne, G. (2002b)

Also use this format to order your list of references.

Boyne, G. et al. 2002a. Best value - total quality management for local government? Public Money and Management 22(3), pp. 9-16.

Boyne, G. et al. 2002b. Plans, performance information and accountability: the case of best value. Public Administration 80(4), pp. 691-710.

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Newspaper article

The format required is similar to that of an academic journal article, except that there will be a precise day of publication, and volume numbers are not usually available or necessary:

Benoit, B. 2007. G8 faces impasse on global warming. Financial Times 29 May 2007, p. 9.

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Patent

Anderson, B. 2001. Device for the damping of vibrators between objects. GB62625858 [Patent].

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Personal communication

Smith, K. 2004. Email to B. Robertson 14 April 2004.

Young, Z. 2007. Letter to S. Nicholas 28 September 2007.

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Photograph

See Image / Table

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Place of publication, none

Use the Latin term sine loco (s.l.)

But try hard to find this, as it is nearly always there.

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Podcast

Author/presenter. Year. Title of podcast. Title of web site or podcast series [Podcast]. Day month year of podcast release. Available at: URL [Accessed: Day month year].

For example:

Cardiff University. 2010. Getting your references in order. Students' survival guide to writing a good essay [Podcast]. 15 April 2010. Available at: http://www.xpressradio.co.uk/survivalguide [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

If no author/presenter is available, put the title of the podcast at the beginning of the reference, followed by the year. Use the title of the podcast instead of the author in your citation.

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Publisher, none

Use the latin term sine nominee (s.n.)

If no publisher name is given, then it is likely that the place of publication will also be unavailable, so give these elements of the reference as follows:

Peters, H. 1946. A short architectural history of the church towers in Lincoln. (s.l.): (s.n.).

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Quotations

Use quotation marks for a short passage where you are quoting someone else’s words exactly, and give page numbers in your citation.

Longer quotations can be indented from the main body of your text. In this case quotation marks are not required.

If you are deliberately missing out any words from the quotation, use three dots … to indicate the omission.

If you are adding or substituting any of your own words within the quotation, enclose these in square brackets [ ].

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Quotations: long

If you are quoting a piece of text which is more than a few lines in length, this should be distinguished from the main body of your own writing by indenting the quotation from the left hand margin. A quotation distinguished in this way does not need to be enclosed in quotation marks:

Charles Dickens’ novel Bleak House opens with the following description to set the scene for his story:

London, Michaelmas term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall. Implacable November weather. As much mud in the streets as if the water had but newly retired from the face of the earth, and it would not be wonderful to meet a Megalosaurus, forty feet long or so, waddling like an elephantine lizard up Holborn Hill (Dickens 1853, p. 1).

The tone of this passage gives a detatched, non-committal account of the dreary winter scene...

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Quotations: short

A short quotation, of a sentence or less in length, can be incorporated your own writing with the use of quotation marks:

Key causes of economic deprivation include low income or unemployment which are often the result of “poor qualification levels and lack of basic skills” (Thake and Saubach 1993, p.18).

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Reference — definition

A reference is a full description of each source you have consulted, in a bibliography or list of references at the end of your work. References should be given in a consistent style throughout.

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References list

A References list should contain only the details of the sources you have cited in the body of your text. A bibliography may also include details of other sources you consulted when researching a piece of work but may not have cited in your text.

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Report

If there is no identifiable author use the name of the organisation which produced the report:

(European Commission 2004)

European Commission. 2004. First report on the implementation of the internal market strategy 2003-2006. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

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Secondary referencing, or citing authors whose original work you have not read

Where possible you should aim to reference from the original source. However, sometimes you may need to cite an author whose work you have not personally read, but whose work is presented or summarised by the author of a publication you have consulted.

Rodinelli (1983), cited in Potts (2002, p. 37), describes the stages of a project...

or

A process project might consist of a number of stages including experimentation and production (Rondinelli 1983, cited in Potts 2002, p. 37).

In your references you should list the source you have actually read, i.e. Potts.

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Table

See Image / Table

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Television programme

Include the title, television channel and time and date of airing.

Top gear. 2007. BBC2, 14 October. 20.00hrs.

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Thesis or Dissertation

Be sure to indicate the level (e.g. MA, MSc, or PhD) of the thesis and the institution at which it was presented:

Boyce, P. J. 2003. GammaFinder: a Java application to find galaxies in astronomical spectral line datacubes. MSc Dissertation, Cardiff University.

Bin Omar, A. 1978. Peasants, institutions and development in Malaysia: the political economy of development in the Muda region. PhD Thesis, Cornell University.

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Title page — definition

The title page is the page at the front of a book which has the book’s copyright information on the reverse.

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Translations

  See Foreign language material

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Web pages

For an Internet-based work by an individual the reference should be given as follows:

Lane, C. et al. 2003. The future of professionalised work: UK and Germany compared [Online]. London: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Available at: http://www.agf.org.uk/pubs/pdfs/1232web.pdf [Accessed: 3rd December 2004].

The publisher and place of publication can be thought of as the organisation responsible for hosting the site, although can be left out if unavailable.

As well as the complete URL to the page, always give the date at which you accessed it. Web sites appear and disappear so often that it is vital to indicate that the information was accurate at the date given.

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Wiki

There is usually no discernable author of a wiki entry and so this information can be excluded from the reference if unavailable. Instead, begin your reference with the title of the wiki article, then provide the year the page was last updated followed by the title of the web site:

A map of our own: Kwun Tong culture and histories. 2009. Creative commons wiki [Online]. Available at: http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Case_Studies/A_Map_of_Our_Own:Kwun_Tong_Culture_and_Histories [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

Please note that as it is often difficult to tell who has authored a wiki post, it is essential that you verify the accuracy of the information provided using scholarly sources such as books or journal articles. Check with your lecturer or tutor before referencing sources such as Wikipedia.

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Working paper

Include the working paper series and number in the reference:

Collins, A. and Flynn, A. 2004. Measuring sustainability: the role of ecological footprinting in Wales, UK. Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society working paper series no. 22. Cardiff: BRASS/ESRC.

If the working paper is online, include the following information:

Collins, A. and Flynn, A. 2004. Measuring sustainability: the role of ecological footprinting in Wales, UK [Online]. Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society working paper series no. 22. Cardiff: BRASS/ESRC. Available at: http://www.brass.cf.ac.uk/uploads/wpecofootprintinginwalesACAF1204.pdf [Accessed: 6 October 2011].

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YouTube film

Libncsu. 2009. Wikipedia: beneath the surface [Online]. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QY8otRh1QPc [Accessed: 21 June 2010].

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