Oscola Bibliography Order No Author

The suggestions on this page have not yet been discussed and approved by the OSCOLA editorial board.

Updates:

Changes to citation of EU cases and legislation

Sources not specifically referred to in OSCOLA 4th edn:

General questions:

Updates

Changes to citation of EU cases and legislation

CJEU cases and the ECLI

The OSCOLA editorial board will discuss treatment of the European Case Law Identifier when preparing the 5th edition. In the meantime, writers who wish to include the ECLI when citing cases from the Court of Justice of the European Union should treat it much like a neutral citation, adding it after the case name and before the report citation. For example:

Case C-176/03 Commission v Council EU:C:2005:542, [2005] ECR I-7879.

For unreported cases, cite the ECLI rather than the OJ notice or the court and date (as advised in OSCOLA 2.6.2). For example:

Case C-542/09 Commission v the Netherlands EU:C:2012:346.

EU legislation – numbering change

Please note that from 1 January 2015 onwards, the numbering of EU legislation has changed, and that under the new approach EU legislation will bear a unique, sequential number. This number should be cited in the form: (domain/body) YYYY/no. For example:

Council Regulation (EU) 2015/159 of 27 January 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 2532/98 concerning the powers of the European Central Bank to impose sanctions [2015] OJ L27/1

Council Decision (CFSP) 2015/236 of 12 February 2015 amending Decision 2010/413/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against Iran [2015] OJ L39/18

The numbering of documents published before 1 January 2015 remains unchanged (see OSCOLA 2.6.1).

Sources not specifically referred to in OSCOLA 4th edn

A source cited in a secondary source

If it is not possible to find the original source, cite the source as cited in the secondary source then in brackets put ‘as cited in’ then cite the secondary source including the page number. For example:

Quoted in WL Clay, The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) 554 (as cited in M Wiener,Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (CUP 1990) 79).

Ebooks

If the ebook provides the same page numbers as in the printed publication, cite the ebook as if it was the printed book.
If the ebook has no page numbers, follow the normal book (or edited book) citation form, including the ebook type/edition before the publisher. 
For pinpoints where there are no page numbers, provide chapter or section number (or section name, if a number isn't provided) and subsection or paragraph number if provided. For example:

Williams on Wills (9th edn, Lexis Library edn, Lexis Nexis 2007) vol 1, part F, para 23.1.
Jill E Martin, Hanbury & Martin Modern Equity (19th edn, Kindle edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2012) ch 1, part 2E, 1-008, text above n 24.
William Lucy, Philosophy of Private Law (Kindle edn, OUP 2007) ch 1, text above n 16.

It may be helpful to refer to a footnote to indicate the relevant text as in the second and third example. However, in the third example there are three pages of Kindle text between footnotes 15 and 16. If you can locate a hard copy of the book use that in preference, unless you can pinpoint accurately without the page number.

Book reviews

Cite a book review in the same way as a journal article, but without the quote marks. For example,

Rowan Cruft, Book Review (2011) Law & Philosophy 637.

One judgment citing another judgment

Cite the first case, followed by 'citing' and then cite the second case. For example, SG&R Valuation Service Co LLC v Boudrais et al [2008] EWHC 1340, [2008] IRLR 770 [22] citing Miles v Wakefield Metropolitan Borough Council [1987] AC 539.

Radio programmes

Cite the name of the speaker (if a direct quote), the title of the programme, the radio station and the date of the programme. If there is no obvious author/speaker, begin the citation with the title of the programme. If available online, include the url and date of access. For example:

Simon Tonking, ‘Jury Trial’ (BBC Radio 4, 1 May 2010) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00s3gq7> accessed 15 February 2013.

Speeches

Follow the advice in OSCOLA 3.4.1, 'General principles' for 'Other secondary sources'. Include the url (web address) and date of access if it is helpful for finding the speech. The third example on page 39 is a speech by Lord Bingham. Another example:

Stavros Dimas, EU Environment Commissioner, 'Improving Environmental Quality through Carbon Trading' (Speech at the Carbon Expo Conference, Köln, 2 May 2007) <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/265> accessed 29 May 2011.

See this document for a more complete answer to this question; it includes information about Endnote.

Dictionaries

Follow the examples given for Encyclopedias (OSCOLA section 3.2.6) and in the dictionaries themselves:

So, for a hard copy book:

'no-fault compensation', Oxford Dictionary of Law (7th edn, OUP 2013).

For online dictionaries:

Also consider elements of the style advice for websites and blogs (section 3.4.8). For the OED online, open the full entry for the word, and click on the Cite button (top right above the definition). Follow that example, tidying it up to make it consistent with OSCOLA styles (eg, change change double quotes to single and full stops to commas, removing those that are unnecessary; change OED Online to italics; change Oxford University Press to OUP and put it before the date; and remove http:// from the web address and delete any text after the Entry number, then put angle brackets around the url):

'philosophy, n' (OED Online, OUP June 2013) <www.oed.com/view/Entry/142505> accessed 21 August 2013.

For other online dictionaries, follow the general advice above. You need a date of publication or at least a date of access (ie when you looked at it), as they are generally updated regularly.

Podcasts, YouTube etc

The general principles for ‘other secondary sources’ (section 3.4.1) suggest the following form for citing podcasts, YouTube videos and similar sources:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <url> accessed xx month 2014

If there is no clear author, give the organisation providing the source as the author. The examples below include a suggestion for citing the comments of a particular person.

Examples:

Dr Douglas Guilfoyle, ‘The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Origins and Importance’ (14 August 2013) <www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SOqz1Yu8tY> accessed 15 April 2014.

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

If referring to comments by someone in particular, add that information as you would a pinpoint, before the url. Include the person's position if relevant. For example:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) comments by MatthewThompson, Centre for Evidence Based Medicine in Oxford <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

Another alternative, particularly if the podcast is quite long, would be to provide the minutes and seconds of the excerpt:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) 10:30-11:15 <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

General questions

Which journals use square brackets in the citation?

Journals that use the year rather than a consecutive number to identify the volume have the year shown in square brackets, as shown in the following citation: J Ip, 'The Rise and Spread of the Special Advocate' [2008] Public Law 717. A partial list of square bracket journals:

Acta JuridicaJournal of Personal Injury Litigation
British Tax ReviewJournal of Planning and Environment Law
Criminal Law ReviewLegal Action
International Family LawLloyd’s Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly
Journal of Business LawPrivate Client Business
 Public Law

Note:  Some journals change from consecutive volume numbers to year identification (eg Cambridge Law Journal used the year from 1954 to 1967).

Why does OSCOLA have some examples with full-stops and some without?

Most examples in OSCOLA show how to cite a particular reference. All examples of references in footnotes end with a full stop. In your own work, close footnotes with a full stop (or question or exclamation mark) (OSCOLA, section 1.1).

On citing URLs (web addresses)

Be careful when citing URLs. Studies indicate that 'link rot' or 'reference rot' (which is when the url still works but the content is gone) is a major problem. In Harvard Public Law Working Paper no 13-42, Jonathan Zittrain, Kendra Alberg and Lawrence Lessig report that more than 70% of links in three Harvard law journals do not produce the information cited. As a solution, they promote Perma.cc, which 'will retrieve and save the contents of a webpage, and return a permanent link'. The Perma.cc system distributes 'Perma caches, architecture, and governance structure to libraries across the world. Thus, so long as any library or successor within the system survives, the links within a Perma architecture will remain'. The original link can be cited along with the Perma link (which is useful as the reader can immediately see the source without having to follow the link to the Perma site), or the Perma link only can be cited (which has the advantage of being short). This system is preferable to other short url systems that do not indicate the original website and url, and whose future is less certain. The Digital Object Identifier (doi) system used by some journals is also sound, but not all law journals use the doi system, and many of those that do also publish in hard copy and so do not require an electronic reference in OSCOLA.

In general, only include the web address when the document is only available online, when the web address is particularly helpful for finding the document, and when the web address is static (ie not the result of a search in a database). Avoid citing references that end in .pdf. For discussion on the instability of website content, see Liz Fisher, 'Gov.UK?' (UK Constitutional Law Group, 9 May 2013) <http://ukconstitutionallaw.org/2013/05/09/liz-fisher-gov-uk/> accessed 26 June 2013.

 

The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is the referencing style used by the Leicester Law School, and by many law schools and legal publishers in the UK.

OSCOLA is published and maintained by the University of Oxford, and is available to download for free from https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/research-subject-groups/publications/oscola.

OSCOLA includes rules and examples for referencing all types of primary and secondary legal resources in the UK, Europe and Internationally.

This webpage summarises the OSCOLA referencing style. It is not a substitute for the official OSCOLA referencing guides (above).

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Help and training

If you have any questions about OSCOLA referencing, please read this guide first, and watch the online lectures below. If your question is not answered, please contact the law librarian via librarians@le.ac.uk or 0116 252 2055. You can also make an individual or group appointment with the law librarian using Book a Librarian.

Workshops

The library runs an Introduction to OSCOLA workshop several times a year. The workshop is aimed at undergraduate law students, but all are welcome. Please see the workshop timetable for forthcoming dates. A copy of the workshop slides is available to download.

Online lectures

If you are unable to attend the OSCOLA workshops, the content is available in a series of online lectures:-

Online tutorials

The Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) has created an suite of online training resources via Law PORT. An Introduction to Citing References Using OSCOLA is an online tutorial introducing the general principles of OSCOLA, and how to cite the main primary and secondary sources of UK and EU law, and many other sources not covered in OSCOLA.

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Footnotes

OSCOLA is a numbered footnote referencing style. Footnote markers (superscript numbers) are inserted in the main body of your essay - normally at the end of the sentence, after the punctuation.1 The full reference is written in the corresponding numbered footnote at the bottom of the page, and the footnote is closed with a full-stop. Microsoft Word includes footnoting tools, and further guidance is available online.

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Bibliography

The bibliography is a complete list of all sources cited in your essay, normally presented at the end of your work. It is divided into two sections: 1) table of authorities (primary sources) and 2) bibliography (secondary sources). Generally, references are copied and pasted from the footnotes to the bibliography. For secondary sources, the format of the author's name is also changed to surname/initial to better enable alphabetical sorting.

The Table of Authorities is divided into subsections for a) cases, b) statutes and c) statutory instruments. If foreign or international materials are used, the primary sources may also be subdivided by jurisdiction. All references should be arranged alphabetically by title within each section.

The Bibliography is divided into subsections for a) books, b) official publications, c) book chapters, d) journal articles, e) other print sources, and f) internet sources. All references should be arranged alphabetically by author's surname within each section. Where the author is not known, references should be listed at the beginning, in alphabetical order by title.

Example

Table of Authorities

Cases
Statutes
Statutory Instruments

Bibliography
Books
Official publications
Book chapters
Journal articles
Other print sources
Internet sources

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Short forms and ibids

The first time you reference a source, full details should be given in the footnote. For subsequent citations, a short form of the reference can be given, followed by a cross reference (in brackets) to the fully referenced footnote. For cases the short form is normally the first party name, and for books and articles the author's surname. If you refer to the same work in the immediately following footnote, you can use ibid (an abbreviation of the Latin ibidem, meaning 'in the same place'), instead of the short form. Page numbers can also be used at the end of short forms and ibids.

Example
(Where footnote 3 refers to footnote 2; and footnote 4 refers to footnote 1)

1 Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn, Palgrave Macmillan 2013).

2 Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013).

3 ibid.

4 Pears and Shields (n 1).

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Quotations

Short quotations (up to three lines of text), should be incorporated into the text, within 'single quotation marks'; longer quotations (over three lines of text), should be presented in an indented paragraph, without quotation marks. All quotations should be referenced by a footnote, and the page number of the quotation should be indicated at the end of the footnote.

Quotations from other works must be faithful to the original, except where it is necessary to change quotation marks from single to double, or vice versa. If some words are missing from the quotation, or if it ends mid sentence in the original text, use an ellipsis (...) to indicate that some of the quotation is missing.

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Page numbers

If you directly quote or paraphrase a source, you should include the page or paragraph number at the the end the footnote (although not in the bibliography). OSCOLA uses minimal punctuation, and page numbers are given simply as a number e.g. 5 or range of numbers e.g. 5-6 at the end of the footnote, without any 'p' or 'pp' or 'page' prefix; paragraph numbers are normally given in square brackets e.g. [5] or [5-7] at the end of the footnote, without any 'para' prefix.

Example

Book:- Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013) 5

Journal:- Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221, 223-224

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Authors

Give authors' names as they appear in the publication, but omit postnominals such as QC. In footnotes, give the author's first name or initial(s) followed by their surname; in the bibliography, give the author's surname first, followed by their initial(s).

Example

Footnote:- Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013).

Bibliography:- Webley L, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)

If there are between 1 and 3 authors, give all the authors' names in the reference; if there are 4 or more authors, give the first author's name, followed by the words 'and others'. If the author is not known, begin the citation with the title (do not use anon).

Example

Footnote:- Scott Slorach and others, Legal Systems and Skills (3rd edn, OUP 2017).

Bibliography:- Slorach S and others, Legal Systems and Skills (3rd edn, OUP 2017)

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Books

Author, | Title of the Book | (Edition, | Publisher | Year)

Example

Footnote:- Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013).

If pinpointing:- Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013) 5.

Short form:- Webley (n #).

Short form if pinpointing:- Webley (n #) 5.

Bibliography:- Webley L, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)

Book chapters

Author, | 'Title of Chapter', | in | Editor (ed), | Title of the Book | (Edition, | Publisher | Year)

Example

Footnote:- Philip Handler, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013).

Short form:- Handler (n #).

Bibliography:- Handler P, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013)

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Journal articles

Author, | ‘Title of Article’ | [(Year)] | Volume | Abbreviation | First Page

Example

Footnote:- Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221.

If pinpointing:- Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221, 223.

Short form:- Virgo (n #).

Short form if pinpointing:- Virgo (n #) 223.

Bibliography:- Virgo G, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221

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Websites

Author, | Title of Website | (Date) | < URL > | accessed Date

Example

Footnote:- Equality and Human Rights Commission, Being Disabled in Britain: A Journey Less Equal (3 April 2017) <www.equalityhumanrights.com> accessed 8 May 2017.

Short form:- Equality and Human Rights Commission (n #).

Bibliography:- Equality and Human Rights Commission, Being Disabled in Britain: A Journey Less Equal (3 April 2017) <www.equalityhumanrights.com> accessed 8 May 2017

Blogs

Author, | ‘Title of Post’ | (Title of Blog, | Date of Post) | < URL > | accessed | Date

Example

Footnote:- Brian Meli, ‘May the 4th Be With Your Brand: A Legal Guide to Making Star Wars Tributes’ (LegalMatter, 27 April 2015) < www.legalmatterblog.com > accessed 28 May 2017.

Short form:- Meli (n #).

Bibliography:- Meli B, ‘May the 4th Be With Your Brand: A Legal Guide to Making Star Wars Tributes’ (LegalMatter, 27 April 2015) < www.legalmatterblog.com > accessed 28 May 2017

eBooks and eJournals

If you read books and journals online, as eBook and eJournals, you should normally reference them as if you were reading the print resource. There is no need to acknowledge the electronic format, database supplier, or web address (URL) and digital object identifier (DOI). If resources are published online only, with no print equivalent, then you should follow guidance for referencing websites, as far as possible.

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UK legislation

If you give a full legislation reference (title, year and section) in the main text of your essay, then you do not need to repeat the information in the footnote. The reference can be omitted from the footnote, but it should be included in the bibliography.

Act / Statute

Short Title | Year

Example

Footnote:- Human Rights Act 1998.

If pinpointing:- Human Rights Act 1998, s 12.

If shortening:- Human Rights Act 1998, s 12 (HRA 1998).

Short form: HRA 1998, s 12.

Bibliography: Human Rights Act 1998

Statutory Instrument

Title | Year, | SI Year/Number

Example

Footnote:- Copyright (Industrial Designs) Rules 1949, SI 1949/2367.

If pinpointing:- Copyright (Industrial Designs) Rules 1949, SI 1949/2367, reg 4.

If shortening:- Copyright (Industrial Designs) Rules 1949, SI 1949/2367, reg 4 (CIDR 1949).

Short form:- CIDR 1949, reg 4

Bibliography:- Copyright (Industrial Designs) Rules 1949, SI 1949/2367

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EU legislation

Title | [Year] | OJ Citation

Example

Footnote:- Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [2003] OJ L299/9.

If pinpointing:- Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [2003] OJ L299/9, art 7.

If shortening:- Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [2003] OJ L299/9 (Working Time Directive 2003).

Short form:- Working Time Directive 2003.

Bibliography:- Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [2003] OJ L299/9

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Treaties

Title | (adopted Date, | entered into force Date) | Citation

Citation = Volume | Abbreviation for Series | Page number

Citations should be from the UNTS (United Nations Treaty Series), or another National Treaty series.

Example

Footnote:- WIPO Copyright Treaty (adopted 20 December 1996, entered into force 6 March 2002) 2186 UNTS 121.

If pinpointing:- WIPO Copyright Treaty (adopted 20 December 1996, entered into force 6 March 2002) 2186 UNTS 121 (WCT), art 10.

If shortening:- WIPO Copyright Treaty (adopted 20 December 1996, entered into force 6 March 2002) 2186 UNTS 121 (WCT).

Short form:- WCT.

Bibliography:- WIPO Copyright Treaty (adopted 20 December 1996, entered into force 6 March 2002) 2186 UNTS 121

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UK cases

If you give the full case name in the main text of your essay, then you only need to give the case citations in the footnote (the case name can be omitted from the footnote).

Cases with a neutral citation (published after 2001)

Case Name | Neutral Citation, | Report Citation

Neutral Citation = [Year] | Abbreviation for Court | Case number

Report Citation = [(Year)] | Volume | Abbreviation for Law Report | Page number

Where possible cite cases from The Law Reports first, then Weekly Law Reports and All England Law Reports.

Example

Footnote:- Lucasfilm Ltd v Ainsworth [2011] UKSC 39, [2012] 1 AC 208.

If pinpointing to page:- Lucasfilm Ltd v Ainsworth [2011] UKSC 39, [2012] 1 AC 208, 228

If pinpointing to a judge:- Lucasfilm Ltd v Ainsworth [2011] UKSC 39, [2012] 1 AC 208 [42]-[44] (Lord Walker SCJ).

If case name given in essay:- [2011] UKSC 39, [2012] 1 AC 208.

Short form:- Lucasfilm (n #).

Bibliography:- Lucasfilm Ltd v Ainsworth [2011] UKSC 39, [2012] 1 AC 208

Cases without a neutral citation (published before 2001)

Case Name | Report Citation | (Court)

Report Citation = [(Year)] | Volume | Abbreviation for Law Report | Page number

Where possible cite cases from The Law Reports first, then Weekly Law Reports and All England Law Reports.

Example

Footnote:- Tyburn Productions Ltd v Conan Doyle [1990] 3 WLR 167 (Ch).

If pinpointing to page:- Tyburn Productions Ltd v Conan Doyle [1990] 3 WLR 167 (Ch), 168.

If pinpointing to a judge:- Tyburn Productions Ltd v Conan Doyle [1990] 3 WLR 167 (Ch), 178-179 (Vinelott J).

If case name given in essay:- [1990] 3 WLR 167 (Ch).

Short form:-Tyburn (n #).

Bibliography:- Tyburn Productions Ltd v Conan Doyle [1990] 3 WLR 167 (Ch)

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ECJ cases

Case Number | Case Name | ECLI citation, | Report citation

ECLI citation = Region | Court | Year | Case number

ECLI (European Case Law Identifier) is a new case law metadata standard and is similar to a UK neutral citation. It is not well known, and not currently part of OSCOLA (so can be omitted), although is covered in OSCOLA's FAQs.

ECR citation = [Year] | ECR | Volume- | Page number

CMLR citation = [Year] | Volume | CMLR | Page number

Where possible cite cases from the European Court Reports first, then Common Market Law Reports, or other major series.

If pinpointing to a paragraph number, use the prefix para instead of [brackets].

In the bibliography, reorder the citation by case name first, then case number and citation.

Example

Footnote:- Case C-607/11 ITV Broadcasting Ltd v TV Catchup Ltd EU:C:2013:147, [2013] 3 CMLR 1.

If pinpointing:- Case C-607/11 ITV Broadcasting Ltd v TV Catchup Ltd EU:C:2013:147, [2013] 3 CMLR 1, paras 30-36.

Case name given in essay:- Case C-607/11, EU:C:2013:147, [2013] 3 CMLR 1

Short form:- ITV Broadcasting Ltd (n #).

Bibliography:- ITV Broadcasting Ltd v TV Catchup Ltd (Case C-607/11) EU:C:2013:147, [2013] 3 CMLR 1

Unreported ECJ cases

Case Number | Case Name | OJ Citation

Example

Footnote:- Case C-527/15 Stichting Brein v Jack Frederik Wullems [2017] OJ C195/02.

Case name given in essay:- Case C-527/15, [2017] OJ C195/02

Bibliography:-Stichting Brein v Jack Frederik Wullems (Case C-527/15) [2017] OJ C195/02

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ECtHR cases

Case Name | Report Citation

ECHR citation = ECHR | Year | Volume | Page number

EHRR citation - (Year) | Volume | EHRR | Case number

Cite either from the Reports of Judgments and Decisions (ECHR) or the European Human Rights Reports (EHRR).

If pinpointing to a paragraph number, use the prefix para instead of [brackets].

Example

Footnote:- Animal Defenders International v United Kingdom (2013) 57 EHRR 21.

If pinpointing:- Animal Defenders International v United Kingdom (2013) 57 EHRR 21, para 124.

Case name given in essay:- (2013) 57 EHRR 21.

Short form:- Animal Defenders International (n # ).

Bibliography:- Animal Defenders International v United Kingdom (2013) 57 EHRR 21

Unreported ECtHR cases

Case Name | Application number | (ECtHR, | Date of judgment)

Example

Footnote:- Animal Defenders International v United Kingdom App no 48876/08 (ECtHR, 22 April 2013).

Case name given in essay:- App no 48876/08 (ECtHR, 22 April 2013)

Bibliography:- Animal Defenders International v United KingdomApp no 48876/08 (ECtHR, 22 April 2013)

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International cases

Case Name | Citation

Where possible cite cases from the International Court of Justice Reports first, then the International Law Reports or other law report series.

Example

Footnote:- Case Concerning the Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Uganda) [2005] ICJ Rep 168.

Case name given in essay:- [2005] ICJ Rep 168.

Short form:- Congo v Uganda (n #).

Bibliography:- Case Concerning the Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Uganda) [2005] ICJ Rep 168

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Secondary referencing

Secondary referencing occurs when you want to cite a text that you have not read. It is best academic practice to obtain the original material and cite it directly; however, there are times when this may not be possible. OSCOLA does not include rules for secondary referencing, although there is some unofficial guidance on using (as cited in) on the OSCOLA website.

Secondary reference | (as cited in | primary reference).

Example

Footnote:- Bernard Hibbitts, ‘The Technology of Law’ (2010) 102 Law Libr J 101 (as cited in Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221, 225).

Bibliography:- Virgo G, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221

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Bibliographic software

Bibliographic software or reference generator software enables you to manage references, and insert footnotes and create bibliographies in your preferred referencing style. Bibliographic software works well for many referencing styles; but not for OSCOLA, which still requires a lot of manual editing, and a working knowledge of OSCOLA.

Foressays up to 5000 words, bibliographic software is not recommended.

Fordissertations and theses, EndNote may be helpful, although is not essential, and it is the only bibliographic software we recommend for use with the OSCOLA referencing style. Further information is available on our EndNote webpage, including an EndNote and OSCOLA user guide.

Other bibliographic software is available: RefWorks is tested and not recommended; Mendeley and Zotero are not tested. As regards the free reference generators e.g Cite This For Me, Citation Machine and Law Teacher, none produce referencing that is of a high enough standard, and they are not recommended.

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